THE ROLE OF LEPTIN IN REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION: INSIGHTS INTO ITS EFFECTS ON MENSTRUAL CYCLE REGULATION AND FERTILITY IN WOMEN

Main Article Content

Jawad Hussain Qamber
Saadia Sajjad
RidaAjmal Khan
Maryam Anwar
Shahid Latif
Mussarat Bano

Keywords

Leptin, reproductive function, menstrual cycle, fertility, hormonal balance

Abstract

Background: Leptin, primarily known for its role in appetite regulation, has emerged as a key player in reproductive health. Leptin has long been known to have metabolic effects, but it also affects men's and women's reproductive systems. It is very desirable to comprehend its effects on female reproductive function, specifically on the control of the menstrual cycle and fertility.


Research Objective: The objective of this research was to investigate the role of leptin in reproductive function, particularly focusing on its impact on menstrual cycle regulation and fertility in women.


Methodology: A prospective observational study was conducted over a period of six months at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Services Hospital, Lahore - Pakistan. A sample size of 58 participants was determined through power analysis calculations. Assessments were done on leptin levels, reproductive hormones, normal menstrual cycles, baseline features, and fertility results. To investigate relationships between variables, statistical methods included regression analysis, correlation analysis, and descriptive statistics.


Results: In our study of 58 participants, we found that leptin levels decreased significantly from the follicular phase (12.40 ng/mL ± 3.10) to the luteal phase (9.80 ng/mL ± 2.50), while other reproductive hormones showed delicate fluctuations. Most participants had regular menstrual cycles (n=48; 82.80%), with 69.12% (n=40) achieving successful conception. Leptin levels were positively correlated with LH, FSH, estrogen, and progesterone. Regression analysis revealed leptin as a significant predictor for irregular menstrual cycles (β = 0.27, p < 0.05) and fertility outcomes (β = 0.35, p < 0.01), while other factors like age, BMI, smoking, and alcohol consumption had negligible effects.


Conclusion: Our study emphasizes leptin's role in female reproductive function, impacting menstrual cycles and fertility, urging tailored interventions for optimal outcomes.

Abstract 125 | pdf Downloads 61

References

1. Pukazhenthi BS, Wildt DE. Which reproductive technologies are most relevant to studying, managing and conserving wildlife?. Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 2003 Dec 10;16(2):33-46.
2. Elias CF, Purohit D. Leptin signaling and circuits in puberty and fertility. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2013 Mar;70:841-62.
3. Budak E, Sánchez MF, Bellver J, Cerveró A, Simón C, Pellicer A. Interactions of the hormones leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, and PYY3-36 with the reproductive system. Fertility and sterility. 2006 Jun 1;85(6):1563-81.
4. Trayhurn P, Bing C. Appetite and energy balance signals from adipocytes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2006 Jul 29;361(1471):1237-49.
5. Moschos S, Chan JL, Mantzoros CS. Leptin and reproduction: a review. Fertility and sterility. 2002 Mar 1;77(3):433-44.
6. Bates GW, Bowling M. Physiology of the female reproductive axis. Periodontology 2000. 2013 Feb;61(1):89-102.
7. Hardie L, Trayhurn P, Abramovich D, Fowler P. Circulating leptin in women: a longitudinal study in the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Clinical endocrinology. 1997 Jul;47(1):101-6.
8. Paolisso G, Rizzo MR, Mazziotti G, Rotondi M, Tagliamonte MR, Varricchio G, Carella C, Varricchio M. Lack of association between changes in plasma leptin concentration and in food intake during the menstrual cycle. European journal of clinical investigation. 1999 Jun;29(6):490-5.
9. Childs GV, Odle AK, MacNicol MC, MacNicol AM. The importance of leptin to reproduction. Endocrinology. 2021 Feb;162(2):bqaa204.
10. Pérez-Pérez A, Sánchez-Jiménez F, Maymó J, Dueñas JL, Varone C, Sánchez-Margalet V. Role of leptin in female reproduction. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2015 Jan 1;53(1):15-28.
11. Ding X, Kou X, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Cheng G, Jia T. Leptin siRNA promotes ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis and affects steroidogenesis by increasing NPY2 receptor expression. Gene. 2017 Oct 30;633:28-34.
12. Rojas J, Chávez M, Olivar L, Rojas M, Morillo J, Mejías J, Calvo M, Bermúdez V. Polycystic ovary syndrome, insulin resistance, and obesity: navigating the pathophysiologic labyrinth. International journal of reproductive medicine. 2014 Oct;2014.
13. Vázquez MJ, Romero-Ruiz A, Tena-Sempere M. Roles of leptin in reproduction, pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome: consensus knowledge and recent developments. Metabolism. 2015 Jan 1;64(1):79-91.
14. Catteau A, Caillon H, Barrière P, Denis MG, Masson D, Fréour T. Leptin and its potential interest in assisted reproduction cycles. Human reproduction update. 2016 Apr 1;22(3):320-41.
15. Mills EG, Yang L, Nielsen MF, Kassem M, Dhillo WS, Comninos AN. The relationship between bone and reproductive hormones beyond estrogens and androgens. Endocrine Reviews. 2021 Dec 1;42(6):691-719.
16. Berkowitz GS, Skovron ML, Lapinski RH, Berkowitz RL. Delayed childbearing and the outcome of pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine. 1990 Mar 8;322(10):659-64.
17. Ajala OM, Ogunro PS, Elusanmi GF, Ogunyemi OE, Bolarinde AA. Changes in serum leptin during phases of menstrual cycle of fertile women: relationship to age groups and fertility. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2013;11(1):27.
18. Ahrens K, Mumford SL, Schliep KC, Kissell KA, Perkins NJ, Wactawski-Wende J, Schisterman EF. Serum leptin levels and reproductive function during the menstrual cycle. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2014 Mar 1;210(3):248-e1.
19. Lyngsø J, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Høyer BB, Støvring H, Bonde JP, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Pedersen HS, Ludwicki JK, Zviezdai V, Toft G. Menstrual cycle characteristics in fertile women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine exposed to perfluorinated chemicals: a cross-sectional study. Human reproduction. 2014 Feb 1;29(2):359-67.
20. Najmabadi S, Schliep KC, Simonsen SE, Porucznik CA, Egger MJ, Stanford JB. Menstrual bleeding, cycle length, and follicular and luteal phase lengths in women without known subfertility: A pooled analysis of three cohorts. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology. 2020 May;34(3):318-27.
21. Ajala OM, Ogunro PS, Elusanmi GF, Ogunyemi OE, Bolarinde AA. Changes in serum leptin during phases of menstrual cycle of fertile women: relationship to age groups and fertility. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2013;11(1):27.