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Mariam Davis
Sadia Rafique
Sidra Meer
Zunaira Afzal
Abdul Qader
Anum Asghar
Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash



Suramin, a potent anti-parasitic agent has been used as anti-cancer drug during last years against a vast variety of cancers. This study highlight the use of suramin as an anti-cancer drug in treatment of breast cancer. The goal of the current investigation was to determine whether the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 exhibited increased expression of heparanase-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition in vitro. Different cancer stem cell markers were examined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction with the following primers: Snail, Slug, E-cadherin, vimentin, NESTIN, NANOG, CXCR-4, OCT3/4, MDR, and MMP's. The effect of the test media on cancer cells was investigated using proliferation and viability assays, as well as gene expression and marker expression. Cell proliferation was identified by the treatment of MCF-7 cell line with suramin and using the test media (containing 200µM suramin) as an inhibitor of heparanase and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells.  Suramin therapy decreased mRNA expression of EMT indicators, cancer stem cell markers, drug resistance proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, and heparanase in a time dependent manner. An inhibitory effect of suramin was also evaluatedin proliferation of cancer cells in MTT assay. In addition, suramin also exhibited a time-dependent inhibition of MCF-7 cell migration in the wound healing assay. As a result, the use of suramin as an anti-cancer agent provides the opportunity for novel drug design to address the issues of drug resistance, metastasis, and chemotherapeutic agent toxicity while improving therapeutic efficacy.

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