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Salman Zahir
Arooba Tariq
Aqib Latif
Mubeen Ali
Jalal Ud Din
Sarwat Jahan
Khansa Khan
Somia Mazhar


Peptic Ulcer Disease, Clinical Manifestations, Risk Factors, Duodenal Ulcer, Pakistan


Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is an alimentary tract problem resulting from mucosal injury brought about by gastric acid and pepsin production. The most common etiologies of peptic ulcer disease are NSAIDS and H Pylori Infections.

Objective: To find the frequency, risk factors, clinical presentations, ulcer types of peptic ulcer patients presenting at gastroenterology OPD of a tertiary care hospital.

Methodology: This is a Cross-Sectional Observational study, conducted over a period of 6 months. The sample size of 464 participants was acquired through consecutive convenient (purposive) sampling. For each subject the data was recorded on a Performa after taking a detailed history, thorough physical examination, and investigations. Informed consent was obtained from the participants before enrolling them to the study. The data was then analyzed using Excel Spread Sheets and SPSS Version 26.

Results: Out of the 464 participants, 214 were male, and 250 were females. Among them, 78.23% participants had a positive family history. The frequency of peptic ulcer disease in this study was recorded to be 59.91%, of which 24.4% participants had blood type O and 60.07% had duodenal ulcer. The common clinical presentations were of acidity (72.66%), indigestion (72.66%) and pain (44.96%). It was also noted that caffeine intake and dyspepsia were among the common risk factors.

Conclusion: Our study concluded that peptic ulcer disease has not just been an issue of the developed world, it is also prevalent in the developing nations, with duodenal ulcer being the commonest presentation. PUD was found to be present among every age group, hence its association is majorly with the unhealthy lifestyle of the patients (like use of analgesics, stress, intake of caffeine and spice).

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