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Mahlab Ijaz
Ejaz Latif
Rai Muhammad Azam
Bisma Shaheen
Smer Yasmeen
Ayesha Arshad
Asif Saeed
Shafia Arshad


Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP), Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCPS), Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCS), Oral Contraceptive (OCs), Combined Injectable Contraceptive (CICs).


Background: Cataract, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and corneal thickness are important parameters in assessing ocular health. The association between contraceptive methods and the incidence of these ocular conditions among females has been a subject of interest. Previous research has suggested a potential relationship between long-term contraceptive use and certain ocular effects. This study aims to further investigate this association and provide insights into the ocular health of females using different contraceptive methods. By exploring these ocular parameters in relation to different contraceptive methods, this study aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the ocular effects of contraceptive therapy in females.

Purpose: To diagnose cataract, raise in intraocular pressure, and corneal thickness in female patient using different contraceptive methods.

Objective: To determine whether the association contraceptive methods and the incidence of cataract, raised IOP and corneal thickness among females.

Participants: A sample size of 178 females aged between 25 to 50 years has been observed.

Study Design: descriptive observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sight Centre Bahawalpur from April to June 2023.

Methodology: One seventy-eight females who used different contraceptive methods with in last two years and aged between 25-50 were included in this study after approval from the ethical review board. Females with any systemic disease, pregnancy and lactating mothers were excluded from the study. Females with ocular diseases, like trachoma, cataract, keratitis, uveitis, corneal dystrophies, Keratoglobus, Keratoconus, ocular trauma, and high refractive errors were also excluded. Each subject underwent full ocular examination including best-corrected visual acuity using Snellen acuity chart and Bio-microscopic examination of anterior segment and the fundus. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured with ultrasonic pachymeter and the intraocular pressure was measured with noncontact tonometer at the time of examination. The data was collected by self-designed proforma and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.

Results: In this study, 178 women between the ages of 25 and 50 who had been using contraception for more than two years were divided into three groups based on the method of birth control they used: oral contraceptives (n = 75), injectable contraceptives (n = 43), and contraceptive implants (n = 60). 32% of the subjects had cataract development in their eyes. The prevalence of cataracts did not differ statistically significantly between the contraceptive groups, though. Women who used oral contraceptive pills had a considerably higher mean intraocular pressure (IOP) than those who used injectable contraceptives and contraceptive implants, with a mean IOP of 15.2 mmHg. Additionally, compared to women who used oral contraceptive pills and injectable contraceptives, those who used contraceptive implants had a considerably larger mean central corneal thickness (CCT). These studies also show possible connections between contraceptive techniques and increased IOP.

Conclusions: This study sheds light on possible relationships between various forms of birth control and ocular characteristics. Contraceptive implants and oral contraceptive tablets were linked to higher central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure, respectively, whereas there was no discernible difference in cataract formation. Further research into the underlying processes and long-term effects of these correlations is warranted in light of these findings. When assisting women in choosing a method of contraception, healthcare professionals should consider these potential ocular effects; further investigation is required to improve our knowledge in this area.

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