Main Article Content

Sana Fatima Dogar
Amina Asif
Tariq Mahmud Tariq
Mariam Danish Iqbal
Anum Hafeez Dogar
Abdul Ahad




Background: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) not only result in increased rates of mortality and morbidity in humans but also present a substantial global burden due to the growing resistance to antifungal treatments.

Objective: This research was conducted to ascertain the occurrence of Aspergillus species in our local area and investigate the coexisting medical conditions in the cases of pulmonary aspergillosis.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional investigation enrolled seventy three clinical cases of pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus species were identified in the specimens of patients who attended the Out Patient Department or were admitted to the Pulmonology Department of Lahore General Hospital, Lahore.

Results: The study disclosed that the most frequently isolated Aspergillus species from the pulmonary specimens was Aspergillus flavus (39 cases, 53.4%), followed by Aspergillus niger (21 cases, 28.8%), Aspergillus fumigatus (12 cases, 16.4%), and Aspergillus terreus (1 case, 1.4%). The prevailing comorbidities among the patients included asthma (21 cases, 30%), tuberculosis (22 cases, 30%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (30 cases, 40%).

Conclusion: The results obtained from this research can serve as a foundation for monitoring the clinically significant and widespread species of Aspergillus in future. Establishing a connection with comorbidities may serve as a pivotal part in enhancing our comprehension of pathophysiology of the disease.

Abstract 168 | pdf Downloads 66


Ahmed, J., Singh, G., Mohan, A., Agarwal, R., Sachdev, J., Khullar, S., . . . Xess, I. (2022). Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis infection in severely ill COPD patients in pulmonary ward and ICU. Indian journal of medical microbiology, 40(2), 223-227.
2. Bailey, M., Sarkhosh, A., Rezazadeh, A., Anderson, J., Chambers, A., & Crane, J. H. (2021). The Passion Fruit in Florida: HS1406, 1/2021. Edis, 2021(1).
3. Fischer, T., El Baz, Y., Graf, N., Wildermuth, S., Leschka, S., Kleger, G.-R., . . . Strahm, C. (2022). Clinical and Imaging Features of COVID-19-Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis. Diagnostics, 12(5), 1201.
4. Friedman, D. Z., & Schwartz, I. S. (2019). Emerging fungal infections: new patients, new patterns, and new pathogens. Journal of Fungi, 5(3), 67.
5. Gupta, A. K., Venkataraman, M., Renaud, H. J., Summerbell, R., Shear, N. H., & Piguet, V. (2021). The increasing problem of treatment‐resistant fungal infections: a call for antifungal stewardship programs. International Journal of Dermatology, 60(12), e474-e479.
6. Hosseini‐Moghaddam, S. M., Ouédraogo, A., Naylor, K. L., Bota, S. E., Husain, S., Nash, D. M., & Paterson, J. M. (2020). Incidence and outcomes of invasive fungal infection among solid organ transplant recipients: a population‐based cohort study. Transplant Infectious Disease, 22(2), e13250.
7. Hosseini, M., Shakerimoghaddam, A., Ghazalibina, M., & Khaledi, A. (2020). Aspergillus coinfection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Asia and Africa countries; a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. Microbial pathogenesis, 141, 104018.
8. Iqbal, N., Irfan, M., Mushtaq, A., & Jabeen, K. (2020). Underlying conditions and clinical spectrum of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (cpa): an experience from a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Fungi, 6(2), 41.
9. Khanam, A., Hithamani, G., Naveen, J., Pradeep, S. R., Barman, S., & Srinivasan, K. (2023). Management of invasive infections in diabetes mellitus: a comprehensive review. Biologics, 3(1), 40-71.
10. Khodadadi, H., Zomorodian, K., Nouraei, H., Zareshahrabadi, Z., Barzegar, S., Zare, M. R., & Pakshir, K. (2021). Prevalence of superficial‐cutaneous fungal infections in Shiraz, Iran: A five‐year retrospective study (2015–2019). Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, 35(7), e23850.
11. Koehler, P., Bassetti, M., Chakrabarti, A., Chen, S. C., Colombo, A. L., Hoenigl, M., . . . Vinh, D. C. (2021). Defining and managing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis: the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria for research and clinical guidance. The Lancet infectious diseases, 21(6), e149-e162.
12. Leroy-Freschini, B., Treglia, G., Argemi, X., Bund, C., Kessler, R., Herbrecht, R., & Imperiale, A. (2018). 18F-FDG PET/CT for invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 111(9), 613-622.
13. Liu, L., Gu, Y., Wang, Y., Shen, K., & Su, X. (2021). The clinical characteristics of patients with nonneutropenic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Frontiers in Medicine, 8, 631461.
14. Maturu, V. N., & Agarwal, R. (2015). Acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis complicating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: case report and systematic review. Mycopathologia, 180, 209-215.
15. Moin, S., Farooqi, J., Jabeen, K., Laiq, S., & Zafar, A. (2020). Screening for triazole resistance in clinically significant Aspergillus species; report from Pakistan. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 9(1), 1-8.
16. Niu, Y., Li, J., Shui, W., Li, D., Yu, C., Fu, X., & Zhang, C. (2020). Clinical features and outcome of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in China: a retrospective, observational study. Journal de Mycologie Médicale, 30(4), 101041.
17. Russo, A., Tiseo, G., Falcone, M., & Menichetti, F. (2020). Pulmonary aspergillosis: an evolving challenge for diagnosis and treatment. Infectious diseases and therapy, 9, 511-524.
18. Salmanton-García, J., Sprute, R., Stemler, J., Bartoletti, M., Dupont, D., Valerio, M., . . . de La Villa, S. (2021). COVID-19–associated pulmonary aspergillosis, March–August 2020. Emerging infectious diseases, 27(4), 1077.
19. Walsh, T. J., Hayden, R. T., & Larone, D. H. (2018). Larone's medically important fungi: A guide to identification: John Wiley & Sons.
20. Wang, J., Yang, Q., Zhang, P., Sheng, J., Zhou, J., & Qu, T. (2020). Clinical characteristics of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang, China: a retrospective case series. Critical care, 24, 1-4.
21. Waqas, S., Dunne, K., Talento, A. F., Wilson, G., Martin-Loeches, I., Keane, J., & Rogers, T. R. (2021). Prospective observational study of respiratory Aspergillus colonization or disease in patients with various stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease utilizing culture versus nonculture techniques. Medical mycology, 59(6), 557-563.
22. Williams, T. J., Harvey, S., & Armstrong-James, D. (2020). Immunotherapeutic approaches for fungal infections. Current opinion in microbiology, 58, 130-137.
23. Zanganeh, E., Zarrinfar, H., Rezaeetalab, F., Fata, A., Tohidi, M., Najafzadeh, M. J., . . . Seyedmousavi, S. (2018). Predominance of non-fumigatus Aspergillus species among patients suspected to pulmonary aspergillosis in a tropical and subtropical region of the Middle East. Microbial pathogenesis, 116, 296-300.
24. Zhu, W., Xu, H., Zhou, D., Lin, L., Wang, B., Wang, P., . . . Li, C. (2023). A radio pulsar phase from SGR J1935+ 2154 provides clues to the magnetar FRB mechanism. Science advances, 9(30), eadf6198.