Main Article Content
Present study was based upon the toxic role of High Fructose Corn syrup (HFCS) on the female reproductive organ as well as it focused on the ameliorative role of Alpha lipoid acid (ALA), which ultimately minimizes the toxicity. Biochemical analysis was performed by measuring the levels of Luteinizing- hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in blood. Moreover, histopathological damage due to this chemical was also evaluated. There was a significant increase in body weight, reproductive and non-reproductive organ weight, Luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in dose group CS I in comparison with Control group. While GSH activities were reduced in the dose group CSI, when compared with the control- group. Administration of ALA significantly decreased (p <0.001) body weight, reproductive and non reproductive organ weight, Luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the dose group CSII, while GSH value increased in dose group CSII group in comparison with CSI Group. Histological studies showed following defects in the ovaries of dose group CS I mice i.e. oocytes with a loss of contact within the granulosa cells, denatured primordial follicles, Cysts development, degraded oocyte and a lower number of follicles and disarrangements of Tunica albuginea and ovarian surface epithelium. While treatment with ALA reduced the ovarian damage by improving the histopathological changes caused by HFCS. Our results showed that HFCS caused ovarian damages, while ALA may be used as a pharmacological agent against ovarian toxicity induced by HFCS. Key words: High Fructose Corn syrup (HFCS), Alpha lipoid acid (ALA).
2. Chattopadhyay, S., Raychaudhuri, U., & Chakraborty, R. (2014). Artificial sweeteners – a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(4), 611–621.
3. Cosar, E., Sahin, F.K., Koken, G., Toy, H., Basarali, K., & Buyukbas, S. (2007). The protective effect of lipoic acid in experimental ovarian ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 47(6), 499–503.
4. Karaarslan, U., İsguder, R., Bag, O., Kısla, M., Agın, H., & Unal, N. (2013). Alpha lipoic acid intoxication, treatment and outcome. Clinical Toxicology, 51(6), 522-522.
5. Karapinar, O.S., Pinar. N., Ozcan, O., Ozgur, T., & Dolapcıoglu, K. (2017). Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid in methotrexate-induced ovarian oxidative injury and decreased ovarian reserve in rats, Gynecological Endocrinology, 33(8), 653-659.
6. Koseler, E., Kiziltan, G., Turker, P.F., Saka, M., Ok, M.A., Bacanli, D., Aydos, T.R., Bayraktar, N., & Ozdemir, H. (2018). The effects of glucose and fructose on body weight and some biochemical parameters in rats. Progress in Nutrition, 20(1), 46-51.
7. Meydanli, E.G., Gumusel, A., Ozkan, S., Tanriverdi, G., Balci, M.B.C., Develi, Is. S., Hazar, A.I., Uysal, M., & Bekpinar, S. (2018). Effects of resveratrol on high-fructose-induced testis injury in rats. Ultrastructural Pathology. 42(1), 65-73.
8. Meyers, A.M., Mourra, D., & Beeler, J.A. (2017) High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity. PLos One, 12(12), 1-12.
9. Nair, D.V., Rani, M.U., Reddy, A.G., Kumar, B.K., Reddy, M.A., Lakshman, M., & Rajkumar, U. (2020). Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid and omega-3 fatty acids against cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian toxicity in rats. Veterinary World, 13(1), 188-196.
10. Nasir, M. F., Samad, Y., Iqbal, M. J., Ali, K., Moeen, H., Hussain, A., Shafi, J., Ashraf, A. (2022). Estimating The Accumulation of Potentially Harmful Elements in Cirrhinus mrigala From Indus River, South Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results., 13 (5): 1798 – 1803.
11. Ñaupas, L.V.S., Brito, D.C.C., de Souza, S.S. et al. Alpha Lipoic Acid Supplementation Improves Ovarian Tissue Vitrification Outcome: An Alternative to Preserve the Ovarian Function of Morada Nova Ewe. Reprod. Sci. 28, 3109–3122 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00593-4
12. Ohkawa, H., Oishi, N. and Yagi, K. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Analytical Biochemistry, 95 (2) 351-358.
13. Ozdogan, S., Kaman, D. and Simsek, B. C. (2012). Effects of coenzyme Q10 and α-lipoic acid supplementation in fructose fed rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2012 Mar; 50(2): 145–151.
14. Ozel, F., Kiray, M., Goker, A., Aydemir, S., & Micıli, S.C., (2020). Protective effect of alpha lipoic acid on 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide induced primary ovarian failure in female rats. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(2), 293-300.
15. Parker, K., Salas, M., & Nwosu, V.C. (2010). High fructose corn syrup: Production, uses and public health concerns. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, 5(5), 71 – 78.
16. Polat, S., Kılıcaslan, O., & Sonmez, F. T. (2020). Alpha-lipoic acid intoxication in an adolescent girl: Case report and review of the literature. Turk Pediatri Arsivi, 55(3), 328–330.
17. Sadowska, J., & Rygielska, M. (2019). The effect of high fructose corn syrup on the plasma insulin and leptin concentration, body weight gain and fat accumulation in rat. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine., 28(7), 879-884.
18. Salehi, B., Berkay, Y., ilmaz, Y., Antika, G., Tumer, T.B., Mahomoodally, M.F., Lobine, D., Akram, M., Riaz, M., Capanoglu, E., Sharopov, F., Martins, N., Cho, W.C., & Sharifi-Rad, J. (2019). Insights on the Use of α-Lipoic Acid for Therapeutic Purposes. Biomolecules, 9(8), 356-381.
19. Sinir, G.O., Suna, S., Inan, S., Bagdas, D., Tamer, C.E., Copur, O.U., Sigirli, D., Sarandol., Sonmez, G., Ercan, I., Evrensel, T., Tarim, O.F., Eren, E., uylaser, V., & incedayi, B.(2017). Effects of long-term consumption of high fructose corn syrup containing peach nectar on body weight gain in sprague dawley rats. Food Science and Technology, 37 (2), 337-343.
20. Sohrabi, M., & Torabian, S. (2019). The Effects of Curcuma Longa L. on Testicular SLC2A5 Expression and Sperm Parameters in Rat with High Fructose Corn Syrup Diet. Journal of Biochemical Technology, 10(1), 11-15
21. Sun, M. A. R., M.,Wang, S., Kang, Q., Huang, L., Li,T., & Xia, W.W. (2013). Effect of high-fructose corn syrup on the acidogenicity, adherence and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. Australian Dental Journal, 58(2), 213-218.
22. Tkachenko, O.Y., Shayakhmetova, G.M., Matvienko, A.V., & Kovalenko, V.M. (2020). Reproductive disorders in male rats induced by high-fructose consumption from juvenile age to puberty, Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 71(1), 78-86.
23. Volk, K.M., Pogrebna, V.V., Roberts, J.A., Zachry, J.E., Blythe, S.N., & Toporikova, N. (2017). High Fat, High-Sugar Diet Disrupts the Preovulatory Hormone Surge and Induces Cystic Ovaries in Cycling Female Rats. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 1(12), 1488–1505.
24. Votano, A., Bonofiglio, A., Catalano, F., & Paone, C. (2021). Importance of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA): Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects. Frontiers in Medical Case Reports, 2(1), 1-09.