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Jiayi Gong
Nawab Ali
Muhammad Abubakar
Ashfaq Ahmad Shah Bukhari
Muhammad Ilyas
Ujala Bashir
Majid Ali
Muhammad Haidar Zaman


Small Extracellular Vesicles (sEV), Lymphocytes, T Cell, B Cell, Immune Enhancement


Background: The human lymphocyte population provides adaptive and humoral immunity; however, the defending function and activities of lymphocytes were found abridged in many infections. Research has also proved the lack of CD4+ T cells in these infections. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the role of small extracellular vesicles (sEV) derived from CD4+ T cells in immune enhancement.
Methodology: CD4+ T cells were activated, and sEV was Isolated and identified. Using different immunological techniques, including Flow cytometry, ELISA, Western Blotting, and immunofluorescence, the endorsement of activation, proliferation, and antibody production by lymphocytes was observed.
Result and discussion: The sEV derived from CD4+ T cells have expressed CD4, CD25, and ICOS molecules connected the biological properties of sEV to the parent cells. The result indicates that CD86 and MHCII expressions on the B cell surface were enhanced in the derived sEV-treated group, conforming that CD4+ T cell-derived sEV can promote B cell activation. In addition, the B cells treated with CD4+ T cell-derived sEV have greater CFSE and SSC-Height subsets and prove they can promote B cell proliferation. Furthermore, The IgG level in cells (wells) treated with 50μg CD4+ T cell-derived sEV was four times higher, corroborating its ability to promote antibody production of B cells.
Conclusion: sEV derived from CD4+ T cells enhances immune responses by promoting activation, proliferation, and IgG production by B cells.

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