IMMUNO-PATHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS WITH TUBERCULOSIS: A RETROSPECTIVE DATABASE STUDY

Main Article Content

Tasra Bibi
Asim Aslam
Yasin Tipu
Tahir Yaqub
Tahir Mehmood Khan
Gohar Iqbal

Keywords

Tuberculosis, HIV, CD4+, Co-infection, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), Erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), Differential leukocytes count (DLC)

Abstract

Objectives: To assess and correlate the hematological and immunopathological profiles of HIV patients with pulmonary TB.


Study Design: A prospective observational study was conducted at the Punjab AIDS Control Program (PACP) and provincial reference TB control laboratory in Lahore.


Place and Duration of the Study: 15th August 2015 to 8th March 2018


Methodology: A data collection form was generated, and socio-economic and demographic information was collected from enrolled subjects. The total number of patients identified was 560, of whom n=510 got HIV. All patients aged 4 to 80 years were included. Blood profiles of the patients were collected, and the Immuno-chromatographic (ICT) Technique was performed for the screening of blood samples; for that, Alere DetermineHIV-1/2 Ag/Abs Combo strips were used. This strip could detect HIV-1/2 antigen (p24) and HIV1/2 antibodies simultaneously. The Gene Xpert detects the DNA sequences that are specific for M. tuberculosis and RIF resistance by PCR. The data was entered into an Excel sheet and then analyzed with the help of Statistical analysis tools Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). 


Results: A total number of five hundred ten (n=510) HIV patients, including males (n=381), females (n=116), and transgender (n=13). Among the enrolled individuals, 64.90% were married, being the highest, and 2.15% were widowed/divorced and were the least. The prevalence of HIV with T.B was significantly higher among male patients. The mean CD4+ and CD8+ count in HIV patients was 429.5 cells/mm3 and 808.4 cells/mm3. CD8+T cell means were high in newly diagnosed and recurrent TB patients. The mean CD4+and CD8+ count in HIV patients co-infected with TB was 200.7 cells/mm3 and 941.6 cells/mm3. It was also recorded that, as compared to a female, the male populations have a lower mean CD4+T cell count.


Conclusion: The findings of this study have revealed that HIV/TB co-infection results in the depletion of CD4+ cells, resulting in susceptibility to other infections. In the current scenario, most cases of TB-HIV co-infection have CD4+ count and Hb lower compared to only HIV-infected patients. Male has a high prevalence of TB-HIV co-infected compared to females. For optimal therapy, the research suggests that HIV patients co-infected with TB be evaluated regularly.

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