Main Article Content
cardiovascular disease, heart, social support, stress management
Background: Social support is an important aspect of the management of cardiovascular diseases. Low social health may lead to adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease patients. A comparative study assessed social support in CVD patients, and a pretest posttest design with control examined the impact of stress management on the level of social support. \
Methods: The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to measure social support in CVD patients. During phase I, the sample size was 200 (100 CVD patients and 100 participants with no CVD). A random sampling technique was used. During phase II, the psychological intervention of stress management was administered to 60 CVD patients (30 in the intervention group and 30 in the control group). The participants were evaluated in 3 categories on social support scale: significant other (SO), family, and friends on a 7-point Likert scale. Demographic data of the participants was recorded.
Results: Cardiovascular disease patients reported a low level of social support as compared to the control group. Stress management intervention revealed significantly higher scores in the friend, family, and significant other subscales, respectively.
Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease patients revealed low social support and stress management intervention improved the level of social support in CVD patients.
2. Årestedt, K., Saveman, B.-I., Johansson, P., & Blomqvist, K. (2012). Social Support and its association with health-related quality of life among older patients with chronic heart failure. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 12(1), 69–77.
3. Bucholz, E. M., Strait, K. M., Dreyer, R. P., Geda, M., Spatz, E. S., Bueno, H., Lichtman, J. H., D’Onofrio, G., Spertus, J. A., & Krumholz, H. M. (2014). Effect of Low Perceived Social Support on Health Outcomes in Young Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results from the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) Study. Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, 3(5). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.114.001252
4. Blumenthal, J. A., Sherwood, A., Babyak, M. A., Watkins, L. L., Waugh, R., Georgiades, A., Bacon, S. L., Hayano, J., Coleman, R. E., & Hinderliter, A. (2005). Effects of Exercise and Stress Management Training on Markers of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease. JAMA, 293(13), 1626. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.13.1626
5. Chinnaiyan, K. M. (2019). Role of stress management for cardiovascular disease prevention. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 34(5), 531–535.
6. Clara, I. P., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., Murray, L. T., & Torgrudc, L. J. (2003). Confirmatory factor analysis of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support in clinically distressed and student samples. Journal of personality assessment, 81(3), 265-270.
7. Czajkowski, S. M., Arteaga, S. S., & Burg, M. M. (2022). Social Support and Cardiovascular Disease. Handbook of Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine, 605–630.
8. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41(4), 1149-1160. https://doi.org/10.3758/brm.41.4.1149
9. Freak-Poli, R., Ryan, J., Neumann, J. T., Tonkin, A., Reid, C. M., Woods, R. L., Nelson, M., Stocks, N., Berk, M., McNeil, J. J., Britt, C., & Owen, A. J. (2021). Social isolation, social support and loneliness as predictors of cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. BMC Geriatrics, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02602-2
10. Freeborne, N., Simmens, S. J., Manson, J. E., Howard, B. V., Cené, C. W., Allison, M. A., Corbie-Smith, G., Bell, C. L., Denburg, N. L., & Martin, L. W. (2019). Perceived social support and the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the Womenʼs Health Initiative Observational Study. Menopause, 26(7), 698–707.
11. Gronewold, J., Engels, M., van de Velde, S., Cudjoe, T. K. M., Duman, E.-E., Jokisch, M., Kleinschnitz, C., Lauterbach, K., Erbel, R., Jöckel, K.-H., & Hermann, D. M. (2021). Effects of Life Events and Social Isolation on Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease. Stroke, 52(2), 735–747. https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.120.032070
12. Hashim, M., Azim, W., Hussain, W., Rehman, F. U., Salam, A., & Rafique, M. (2022). Quality of Life, Perceived Social Support and Death Anxiety Among People Having Cardiovascular Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Study. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 16(4), 460–463. https://doi.org/10.53350/pjmhs22164460
13. Havranek, E. P., Mujahid, M. S., Barr, D., Blair, I. V., Cohen, M. S., Cruz-Flores, S., Davey-Smith, G., Dennison-Himmelfarb, C., Lauer, M. S., Lockwood, D. W., Rosal, M. C., & Yancy, C. W. (2015). Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes for Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation, 132(9), 873–898. https://doi.org/10.1161/cir.0000000000000228
14. Hu, J., Fitzgerald, S. M., Owen, A. J., Ryan, J., Joyce, J., Chowdhury, E., Reid, C. M., Britt, C., Woods, R. L., McNeil, J. J., & Freak‐Poli, R. (2021). Social isolation, social support, loneliness and cardiovascular disease risk factors: A cross‐sectional study among older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5601
15. Jee Won Park, Howe, C. J., Dionne, L., Scarpaci, M. M., Needham, B. L., Sims, M., Kanaya, A. M., Kandula, N. R., Fava, J. L., Loucks, E. B., Eaton, C. B., & Dulin, A. (2022). Social support, psychosocial risks, and cardiovascular health: Using harmonized data from the Jackson Heart Study, Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. SSM-Population Health, 20, 101284–101284.
16. Kang, H. (2021). Sample size determination and power analysis using the G* Power software. Journal of educational evaluation for health professions, 18.17
17. Kuper, H., Adami, H.-O., Theorell, T., & Weiderpass, E. (2006). Psychosocial Determinants of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-Aged Women: A Prospective Study in Sweden. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(4), 349–357. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwj212
18. Orth-Gomér, K., Schneiderman, N., Wang, H. X., Walldin, C., Blom, M., & Jernberg, T. (2009). Stress reduction prolongs life in women with coronary disease: the Stockholm Women’s Intervention Trial for Coronary Heart Disease (SWITCHD). Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 2(1), 25-32.
19. Rosengren, A. (2004). Coronary disease in relation to social support and social class in Swedish Men A 15-year follow-up in the study of men born in 1933. European Heart Journal, 25(1), 56–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehj.2003.10.005
20. Sharif, M., Zaidi, A., Waqas, A., Malik, A., Hagaman, A., Maselko, J., LeMasters, K., Liaqat, R., Bilal, S., Bibi, T., Ahmad, I., Sikander, S., & Rahman, A. (2021). Psychometric validation of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support during pregnancy in rural Pakistan. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.601563
21. Shumaker, S. C., Frazier, S. K., Moser, D. K., & Chung, M. L. (2017). Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support in Patients with Heart Failure. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 25(1), 90–102. https://doi.org/10.1891/1061-37188.8.131.52
22. Staniute, M., Brozaitiene, J., & Bunevicius, R. (2013). Effects of Social Support and Stressful Life Events on Health-Related Quality of Life in Coronary Artery Disease Patients. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 28(1), 83–89. https://doi.org/10.1097/jcn.0b013e318233e69d
23. Su, S.-F., Chang, M.-Y., & He, C.-P. (2018). Social Support, Unstable Angina, and Stroke as Predictors of Depression in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 33(2), 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1097/jcn.0000000000000419
24. Tsao, C. W., Aday, A. W., Almarzooq, Z., Alonso, A., Beaton, A., Bittencourt, M. S., Boehme, A. K., Buxton, A. E., Carson, A. P., Commodore-Mensah, Y., Elkind, M. S., Evenson, K. R., Eze-Nliam, C., Ferguson, J. F., Generoso, G., Ho, J. E., Kalani, R., Khan, S. S., Kissela, B. M., . . . Martin, S. S. (2022). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2022 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 145(8). https://doi.org/10.1161/cir.0000000000001052
25. Wenn, P., Meshoyrer, D., Barber, M., Ghaffar, A., Razka, M., Jose, S., Zeltser, R. and Makaryus, A.N., (2022). Perceived Social Support and its Effects on Treatment Compliance and Quality of Life in Cardiac Patients. Journal of Patient Experience. 2022; 9:237437352210741. https://doi.org/10.1177/23743735221074170
26. World Bank Country and Lending Groups – World Bank Data Help Desk. (n.d.). Datahelpdesk.worldbank.org. https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-
27. World Health Organization. (2021). Cardiovascular diseases (cvds).
28. World Health Organization. (2020). The top 10 causes of death. Fact sheet. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/
29. Zimet, G.D., Dahlem, N.W, e, S.G., & Farley G.K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1) ,30-41.