Main Article Content
Genital Fistula, Socio-Demographic Factors, Etiology, Women's Health, Maternal Health, Obstetric Care, Socioeconomic Status, Poverty, Education, Healthcare Access, Systematic Review, Prevention, Low-Resource Settings
Background: Genital fistula is a devastating childbirth injury characterized by an abnormal connection between the genital and urinary or gastrointestinal tracts. It results in continuous, uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces, leading to severe physical and psychological suffering. While advances in medical care have made fistula largely preventable and treatable in high-resource settings, it remains a pervasive issue in many low-income countries. The etiology of genital fistula is complex and influenced by socio-demographic factors such as age, education, economic status, and healthcare access. Understanding these factors is essential to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.
Aim: This research aims to investigate the role of socio-demographic factors in the etiology of genital fistula. By synthesizing existing literature and conducting a comprehensive analysis, we seek to identify the key determinants and pathways through which socio-demographic factors influence the incidence of genital fistula. Ultimately, our goal is to provide insights that can inform targeted interventions and policies to reduce the burden of this condition.
Methods: A systematic paper of peer-reviewed articles, reports, and studies related to genital fistula and socio-demographic factors was conducted. This research was conducted at MCH PIMS, from Jan 2022 till June 2023. The literature search covered a broad range of databases and included studies from various geographic regions. After identifying relevant publications, data extraction and analysis were carried out to elucidate the connections between socio-demographic factors and the etiology of genital fistula. The analysis employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches, including statistical modeling and thematic synthesis.
Results: The analysis revealed a complex interplay of socio-demographic factors in the etiology of genital fistula. Age at first childbirth emerged as a significant predictor, with early marriages and pregnancies increasing the risk of fistula. This study consisted of total 40 participants. Low educational attainment, especially among women, was associated with higher odds of experiencing fistula, highlighting the importance of empowering women through education. Economic status also played a crucial role, with poverty contributing to limited access to healthcare, delaying obstetric care, and increasing the risk of obstetric complications leading to fistula. Healthcare disparities and inadequate infrastructure further exacerbated the problem.
Conclusion: The findings from this research emphasize the critical role of socio-demographic factors in the etiology of genital fistula. To effectively address this condition, interventions must consider the multifaceted nature of these factors. Strategies should focus on delaying early marriages, promoting education, and providing accessible and affordable healthcare, especially during pregnancy and childbirth. Empowering women and improving their socio-economic status can be central to reducing the incidence of genital fistula. This study underscores the urgency of a comprehensive approach to tackle genital fistula, combining medical, social, and economic interventions.
2. Zakiyyu, I. M., Tafida, A. M., Iliya, V., & Rabo, A. A. (2023). RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SOCIAL SUPPORT, COPING STRATEGIES, AGE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING OF VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA PATIENTS AT MURTALA MUHAMMAD SPECIALIST HOSPITAL, KANO, NIGERIA. African Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences, 13(2).
3. Bigley, R., Barageine, J., Nalubwama, H., Neuhaus, J., Mitchell, A., Miller, S., ... & El Ayadi, A. M. (2023). Factors associated with reintegration trajectory following female genital fistula surgery in Uganda. AJOG Global Reports, 3(4), 100261.
4. Bigley, R., Barageine, J., Nalubwama, H., Neuhaus, J., Mitchell, A., Miller, S., ... & El Ayadi, A. M. (2023). Factors associated with reintegration trajectory following female genital fistula surgery in Uganda. AJOG Global Reports, 3(4), 100261.
5. Hotchkiss, E., Nalubwama, H., Miller, S., Ryan, N., Barageine, J., Byamugisha, J., & El Ayadi, A. M. (2023). Social support among women with genital fistula in Uganda. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 25(3), 320-335.
6. Bulndi, L. B., Bayes, S., Adama, E., & Ireson, D. (2023). North-central Nigerian women’s experiences of obstetric Fistula risk factors and their perceived treatment services: an interpretive description. Women and Birth.
7. Traore, T. M., Ouedraogo, S., Kabore, M., Ouedraogo, S., & Traore, J. J. (2023). Characteristics of obstetric urogenital fistulas in a regional teaching hospital in Burkina Faso: a retrospective cross-sectional study. The Pan African Medical Journal, 44.
8. El Ayadi, A. M., Mitchell, A., Nalubwama, H., Miller, S., Semere, W., Barageine, J. K., ... & Byamugisha, J. (2023). The social, economic, emotional, and physical experiences of caregivers for women with female genital fistula in Uganda: A qualitative study. Global Public Health, 18(1), 2242458.
9. El Ayadi, A. M., Obore, S., Kirya, F., Miller, S., Korn, A., Nalubwama, H., ... & Barageine, J. K. (2023). Identifying Opportunities for Prevention of Adverse Outcomes Following Female Genital Fistula Repair: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study in Uganda.
10. Kamel, F. R., Ramadan, S., Elbana, H., & Kamal, F. (2023). Pregnant Womens knowledge and Attitude Regarding Obstetric Fistula. Benha Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(4), 257-267.
11. Bulndi, L. B., Ireson, D., Adama, E., & Bayes, S. (2023). Women’s views on obstetric fistula risk factors and prevention in north-central Nigeria: an interpretive descriptive study. BMJ open, 13(6), e066923.
12. Ozer, O., Keles, E., Eker, H. H., Baydili, K. N., & Osman, M. M. (2023). Postpartum depressive symptoms in women with female genital mutilation in Somalia. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 36(2), 2256445.
13. Takang, W. A., & Landry, M. M. (2023). Epidemiologic and Therapeutic Aspect of Urogenital Fistula Following Obstetric and Gynecologic Surgeries Repaired at the Nkwen Baptist Hospital. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 13(3), 427-443.
14. Sial, N., Ahmad, M., Hussain, M. S., Iqbal, M. J., Hameed, Y., Khan, M., ... & Asif, H. M. (2021). CTHRC1 expression is a novel shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of survival in six different human cancer subtypes. Scientific reports, 11(1), 19873.
15. Agha, A. A., Onalu, C., Nnama-Okechukwu, C., & Ebimgbo, S. (2023). Strengthening Social Support Networks for the Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Obstetric Fistula Patients in South-East, Nigeria. Journal of Social Service Research, 1-12.
16. Ullah, L., Hameed, Y., Ejaz, S., Raashid, A., Iqbal, J., Ullah, I., & Ejaz, S. A. (2020). Detection of novel infiltrating ductal carcinoma-associated BReast CAncer gene 2 mutations which alter the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding ability of BReast CAncer gene 2 protein. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, 16(6), 1402-1407.
17. Yasir, M., Nawaz, A., Ghazanfar, S., Okla, M. K., Chaudhary, A., Al, W. H., ... & Imran, M. (2022). Anti-bacterial activity of essential oils against multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens isolated from raw milk. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 84, e259449.
18. Sial, N., Rehman, J. U., Saeed, S., Ahmad, M., Hameed, Y., Atif, M., ... & Ambreen, A. (2022). Integrative analysis reveals methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like as an independent shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in five different human cancers. Bioscience Reports, 42(1), BSR20211783.
19. Yakubu, E. N., Obuna, J. A., Ekwedigwe, K. C., Daniyan, A. B. C., Uro-Chukwu, H. C., Mbamalu, S. O., ... & Aja, D. (2023). Profile and Outcome of Obstetric Fistula Surgeries in a Fistula Care Centre in South-East Nigeria. Advances in Clinical Medical Research, 4(1), 12-16.
20. García, J. C., Ríos‐Pena, L., Rodríguez, M. C. R., Maraver, F. M., & Jiménez, I. R. (2023). Development and internal validation of a multivariable prediction model for the quality of life of cervical cancer survivors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research.
21. García, J. C., Ríos-Pena, L., Rodríguez, M. C. R., Maraver, F. M., & Jiménez, I. R. (2023). Development and internal validation of a multivariable prediction model for the quality of life of cervical cancer survivors. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research.
22. Yakubu, E. N., Obuna, J. A., Ekwedigwe, K. C., Daniyan, A. B. C., Uro-Chukwu, H. C., Mbamalu, S. O., ... & Aja, D. (2023). Profile and Outcome of Obstetric Fistula Surgeries in a Fistula Care Centre in South-East Nigeria. Advances in Clinical Medical Research, 4(1), 12-16.
23. García, J. C., Ríos‐Pena, L., Rodríguez, M. C. R., Maraver, F. M., & Jiménez, I. R. (2023). Development and internal validation of a multivariable prediction model for the quality of life of cervical cancer survivors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research.
24. Tweneboah, R., Budu, E., Asiam, P. D., Aguadze, S., & Acheampong, F. (2023). Awareness of obstetric fistula and its associated factors among reproductive-aged women: Demographic and health survey data from Gambia. Plos one, 18(4), e0283666.
25. Amutaigwe, C. E. (2023). The Effects of Vesico-Vaginal Fistula in the Lives of Women in Southeastern Nigeria (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).