Main Article Content

Mohammad Alghamdi
Fahd Alblowi
Manal Banaser
Fatemah Alotaibi
Samia Alzahrani


Nurses, Acceptance, Barriers, Covid-19 vaccination, Saudi Arabia, Pandemic, Healthcare


Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease, which has become a pandemic that infected people around the world. The first Covid-19 vaccine has been used was in United Kingdom in the second week of December 2020. Nurses’ perception and knowledge toward COVID-19 vaccine plays a major role in combating the pandemic. Nurses are among the frontline of health care delivery, and their perception about COVID-19 vaccination will better address barriers to widespread vaccination acceptance.

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess acceptance and perception and barriers toward COVID-19 vaccine among Nurses at MOH, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Method:  The study used a cross-sectional design, administered online survey to MOH’s nurses. The web-based survey was distributed to a convenience sample of 5,000 nurses to assess nurses’ perception and knowledge toward COVID-19 vaccine. The online self-administrative questioner includes demographic variables and 16 items of 5 Likert scale ranges from 1 “strongly disagree” to 5 “strongly agree” to measure the nurses’ perception and knowledge.

Results: The average score for perception and barriers for Covid-19 vaccination was 2.19 ± 0.45 and 1.56 ± 0.44 respectively. It was found that Nurse’s perception for covid-19 vaccination was negatively correlated with the barrier faced by nurses, r (4841) = -0.40, P<0.01. Multiple variable regression demonstrated that nurse perception was statistically significant associated with gender (b: 0.153, [95%: 0.108, 0.197]), nationality (b: -0.092, [95%: -0.123, -0.061]), and qualification (b: 0.03, [95%: 0.001, 0.058]) of nurse.

Discussion: The present study's highlights the importance of diverse processes that include education and guidance in increasing immunization rates among nurses in Saudi. Efforts must be made to reduce hesitancy and barriers to take vaccine and increase vaccination confidence.

Conclusion: Health policy makers and officials should focus educational activities to address vaccination safety and efficacy concerns, while further study is needed to evaluate wide immunization coverage following the launch of the COVID-19 vaccine. The study has implication in wider international and local health settings who face vaccination acceptance issue among nurses.

Abstract 320 | pdf Downloads 80


1. Adeniyi, O. V., Stead, D., Singata-Madliki, M., Batting, J., Wright, M., Jelliman, E., ... & Parrish, A. (2021). Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccine among the Healthcare Workers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: A Cross Sectional Study. Vaccines, 9(6), 666.‏
2. Al-Metwali BZ, Al-Jumaili AA, Al-Alag ZA, Sorofman B. Exploring the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers and general population using health belief model. J Eval Clin Pract. 2021 May 7:10.1111/jep.13581. doi: 10.1111/jep.13581. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33960582; PMCID: PMC8242385.
3. Al-Mohaithef, M., & Padhi, B. K. (2020). Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance in Saudi Arabia: A Web-Based National Survey. Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 13, 1657–1663.
4. Barry, M., Temsah, M. H., Alhuzaimi, A., Alamro, N., Al-Eyadhy, A., Aljamaan, F., ... & Al-Tawfiq, J. (2020). COVID-19 vaccine confidence and hesitancy among healthcare workers: a cross-sectional survey from a MERS-CoV experienced nation. Medrxiv.‏
5. Biswas, N., Mustapha, T., Khubchandani, J., & Price, J. H. (2021). The Nature and Extent of COVID-19 Vaccination Hesitancy in Healthcare Workers. Journal of Community Health, 1-8.‏
6. Dror, A. A., Eisenbach, N., Taiber, S., Morozov, N. G., Mizrachi, M., Zigron, A., ... & Sela, E. (2020). Vaccine hesitancy: the next challenge in the fight against COVID-19. European journal of epidemiology, 35(8), 775-779.‏
7. Fakonti, G., Kyprianidou, M., Toumbis, G., & Giannakou, K. (2021). Attitudes and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among nurses and midwives in Cyprus: a cross-sectional survey. Frontiers in public health, 9, 656138.‏
8. Gadoth, A., Halbrook, M., Martin-Blais, R., Gray, A. N., Tobin, N. H., Ferbas, K. G., ... & Rimoin, A. W. (2020). Assessment of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers in Los Angeles. Medrxiv.‏
9. Gagneux-Brunon, A., Detoc, M., Bruel, S., Tardy, B., Rozaire, O., Frappe, P., & Botelho-Nevers, E. (2021). Intention to get vaccinations against COVID-19 in French healthcare workers during the first pandemic wave: a cross-sectional survey. Journal of Hospital Infection, 108, 168-173.‏
10. Jackson-Thompson, B. M., Goguet, E., Laing, E. D., Olsen, C. H., Pollett, S., Hollis-Perry, K. M., ... & Mitre, E. (2021). Prospective Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Seroconversion (PASS) study: an observational cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in healthcare workers. BMC infectious diseases, 21(1), 1-15.‏
11. Kaplan, A. K., Sahin, M. K., Parildar, H., & Adadan Guvenc, I. (2021). The willingness to accept the COVID‐19 vaccine and affecting factors among healthcare professionals: A cross‐sectional study in Turkey. International Journal of Clinical Practice, e14226.‏
12. Li, M., Luo, Y., Watson, R., Zheng, Y., Ren, J., Tang, J., & Chen, Y. (2021). Healthcare workers’(HCWs) attitudes and related factors towards COVID-19 vaccination: a rapid systematic review. Postgraduate Medical Journal.‏
13. Malik, A. A., McFadden, S. M., Elharake, J., & Omer, S. B. (2020). Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in the US. EClinicalMedicine, 26, 100495.‏
14. Manning, M. L., Gerolamo, A. M., Marino, M. A., Hanson-Zalot, M. E., & Pogorzelska-
15. Maziarz, M. (2021). COVID-19 vaccination readiness among nurse faculty and student nurses. Nursing Outlook.‏
16. Newland, R., Green, D., & Waterall, J. (2021). Nurses' role in curbing the pandemic affirms their wider remit in disease prevention and promoting vaccination. British Journal of Nursing, 30(6), 382-383.‏
17. Ngasa, N. C., Ngasa, S. N., Tchouda, L. A. S., Tanisso, E., Abanda, C., & Dingana, T. N. (2021). Spirituality and other factors associated with COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance amongst Healthcare Workers in Cameroon.‏
18. Patelarou, E., Galanis, P., Mechili, E. A., Argyriadi, A., Argyriadis, A., Asimakopoulou, E., ... & Patelarou, A. (2021). Factors influencing nursing students' intention to accept COVID-19 vaccination: A pooled analysis of seven European countries. Nurse Education Today, 105010.‏
19. Puri, N., Coomes, E. A., Haghbayan, H., & Gunaratne, K. (2020). Social media and vaccine hesitancy: new updates for the era of COVID-19 and globalized infectious diseases. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 16(11), 2586-2593.‏
20. Qattan, A., Alshareef, N., Alsharqi, O., Al Rahahleh, N., Chirwa, G. C., & Al-Hanawi, M. K. (2021). Acceptability of a COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Frontiers in Medicine, 8, 83.‏
21. Sallam, M. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy worldwide: a concise systematic review of vaccine acceptance rates. Vaccines, 9(2), 160.‏
22. Sallam, M., Al-Sanafi, M., & Sallam, M. (2022). A global map of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates per country: an updated concise narrative review. Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 21-45.‏
23. Saudi Ministry of Health MOH (2019). Annual Statistics Books; Saudi Ministry of Health: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
24. Shekhar, R., Sheikh, A. B., Upadhyay, S., Singh, M., Kottewar, S., Mir, H., ... & Pal, S. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health care workers in the United States. Vaccines, 9(2), 119.‏
25. Temsah, M. H., Barry, M., Aljamaan, F., Alhuzaimi, A., Al-Eyadhy, A., Saddik, B., ... & Al-Tawfiq, J. A. (2021). Adenovirus and RNA-based COVID-19 vaccines’ perceptions and acceptance among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia: a national survey. BMJ open, 11(6), e048586.‏
26. Verger, P., Scronias, D., Dauby, N., Adedzi, K. A., Gobert, C., Bergeat, M., ... & Dubé, E. (2021). Attitudes of healthcare workers towards COVID-19 vaccination: a survey in France and French-speaking parts of Belgium and Canada, 2020. Eurosurveillance, 26(3), 2002047.‏
27. Viswanath, K., Hiremath, R. N., Basra, S. S., & Chourey, N. (2021). Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination drive: The perceptions and acceptance of vaccination among health care workers. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 177-181.‏
28. Wang, J., Jing, R., Lai, X., Zhang, H., Lyu, Y., Knoll, M. D., & Fang, H. (2020). Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic in China. Vaccines, 8(3), 482.‏
29. WHO. Novel Coronavirus—China; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020; Available online: (accessed on 19 January 2023).WHO. Coronavirus Situation Report-184; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020.
30. Woolf, K., McManus, I. C., Martin, C. A., Nellums, L. B., Guyatt, A. L., Melbourne, C., . & Group, U. R. S. C. (2021). Ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy in United Kingdom healthcare workers: Results from the UK-REACH prospective nationwide cohort study. The Lancet Regional Health-Europe, 100180.‏
31. Zuercher, K., Mugglin, C., Egger, M., Mueller, S., Fluri, M., Bolick, L., ... & Fenner, L. (2021). Vaccination willingness for COVID-19 among health care workers in Switzerland. medRxiv.‏