Main Article Content
Anxiety, Covid-19, Students, Payame Noor University.
Background and Aim: One of the psychological discomforts that is a product of the global spread of the corona virus is anxiety In addition to causing physical problems and respiratory challenges for affected people, the disease of Covid-19 causes psychological tensions such as anxiety, depression, fear and worry in this group of people. So; This research deals with the prediction of psychological Disturbances based on the cognitive regulation of emotion according to the mediating role of Corona anxiety
Methodology: The method we used in this research to carry out research steps was the correlation method. In addition, this research is of a cross-sectional type due to the fact that it was conducted in a specific period of time. The statistical population of this research was formed by all students of Payam Noor University, Urmia Branch, in the academic year 2022-2023. The statistical sample of this research included 599 students (247 men and 352 women) of Payam Noor University, Urmia branch, who were selected by stratified sampling method. We used three questionnaires to collect information in this study, which include; Psychological Disturbances Questionnaire (SCS-A), Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and Corona Anxiety Scale, we used the method of calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient to determine the level of relationships between the variables, and, we used the "one-sample t-test" statistical method to determine the status of the analyzed variables in the studied population.
Results: The results of statistical analysis show that the cognitive regulation of emotion has the ability to predict psychological disturbance, considering the mediating role of Corona anxiety (P<0,05). In this research, it was found that with the increase in the cognitive regulation of emotion, the level of psychological disturbance takes a downward course in students. (P<0,05). In addition, the findings indicated that the cognitive regulation of emotion has the ability to predict Corona anxiety. Although the direction of this relationship is opposite (P<0,05). Also, the results of statistical analysis showed that the Corona anxiety has the ability to predict psychological disturbance. So that the direction of this relationship is direct (P<0,05).
Conclusion: This result was obtained according to the findings that emotion regulation has the ability to predict psychological disorders due to the mediating role of corona anxiety. Based on this result, in order to increase students' adaptability and resilience, it is suggested to organize workshops to teach ways to increase flexibility and resistance capacity against stressful events.
2. Akhawan Obeiri, F, Shoairi, M, & Gholami Pushharaki, M. (2017). Structural relationships of attachment style with psychological distress: the instrumental role of cognitive emotion regulation. Clinical Psychology, 10(3), 63-76. doi: 10.22075/jcp.2019.15976.1528
3. Alipour A, Ghadami A, Alipour Z, Abdollahzadeh H. (2020). Preliminary validation of the Corona disease anxiety scale (CDAS) in the Iranian sample. Journal of Health Psychology. 8(4): 163-75.
4. Anderson RM, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth TD. (2020), How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? The Lancet.; 10228: 931-4.
5. Asmundson GJG, Taylor S. (2020). How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know. J Anxiety Disord ;71:102211. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102211. Epub 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32179380; PMCID: PMC7271220.
6. Atadokht A, Daneshvar S, Fathi Gilarlou M, Soleymanyi I.(2015). The Psychological Distress Profile of Mothers and Adolescents´ Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Ardabil in 2014. JRUMS; 14 (7): 549-560. http://journal.rums.ac.ir/article-1-2510-en.html
7. Bajema K.L, Oster A.M, McGovern O.L. (2020). Persons Evaluated for 2019 Novel Coronavirus United States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. CDC. ePub. 69(6).166–170.
8. Bao, Y.; Sun, Y.; Meng, S.; Shi, J.; Lu, L. (2020). 2019-nCoV epidemic: Address mental health care to empower society. Lancet, 395, e37–e38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
9. Brehl AK, Schene A, Kohn N, Fernández G. (2021). Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in a vulnerable population predict increased anxiety during the Covid-19 pandemic: A pseudo-prospective study. J Affect Disord Rep; 4:100113. [DOI:10.1016/j.jadr.2021.100113].
10. Brenning K, Waterschoot J, Dieleman L, Morbée S, Vermote B, Soenens B, Van der Kaap-Deeder J, van den Bogaard D, Vansteenkiste M. (2023). The role of emotion regulation in mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak: A 10-wave longitudinal study. Stress Health 39(3):562-575. doi: 10.1002/smi.3204. Epub Nov 5. PMID: 36252954; PMCID: PMC9874444.
11. Cai W, Pan Y, Zhang S, Wei C, Dong W, Deng G. (2017). Relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers: Exploring multiple mediation model. Psychiatry Res; 256:71-8.
12. Cao, W.; Fang, Z.; Hou, G.; Han, M.; Xu, X.; Dong, J.; Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. J. Psychiatry Res., 287, 112934. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
13. Casagrande, M.; Favieri, F.; Tambelli, R.; Forte, G. (2020). The enemy who sealed the world: Effects quarantine due to the COVID-19 on sleep quality, anxiety, and psychological distress in the Italian population. Sleep Med. 2020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020). Available online:
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/colleges-universities/considerations. html (accessed on 28 ).
15. Daniali M, Eskandari E. (2022). Predicting coronavirus anxiety based on resilience, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and cyberchondria. Advances in Cognitive Sciences; 23 (4) :61-71. http://icssjournal.ir/article-1-1261-fa.html. [Persian].
16. Davodi, Z. (2018). Investigating the relationship between the personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, acceptance and conscientiousness with psychological disturbance and job enthusiasm and its dimensions among municipal employees of Region Two. The third international conference on new researches in psychology, counseling and educational sciences. https://en.civilica.com/doc/914830/
17. Diedrich, A., Hofmann, S. G., Cuijpers, P., & Berking, M. (2016). Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 82, 1-10.
18. Dovbysh, D. V., & Kiseleva, M. G. (2020). Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19. Psychology in Russia State of the Art, .13.
19. ESLAMPANAH M, MAHDIAN H, JAJARMI M. (2020). investigate the fitness of Iranian adolescents' risk-taking model in addiction with emphasis on family functioning and maladaptive schemas, distress tolerance and emotion regulation.. etiadpajohi; 13 (54) :67-90.
20. Eyni S, Ebadi M, Torabi N. (2020). Developing a model of corona anxiety in students based on optimism and resilience: The mediating role of the perceived social support. Counseling Culture and Psychotherapy;11(43):1-32. [Persian].
21. Ezazi Bojnourdi E, Ghadampour S, Moradi Shakib A, Ghazbanzadeh R. (2020), Predicting Corona Anxiety based on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Health Hardiness and Death Anxiety in Diabetic Patients. IJPN; 8 (2) :34-44. http://ijpn.ir/article-1-1547-en.html
22. Farahati M. (2020). Psychological consequences of the coronavirus outbreak in the community. Quarterly Journal of Social Impact Assessment (Special Issue on The Consequences of Coronavirus Outbreak - COVID-19). 207-225.
23. Farivar M, Aziziaram S, Basharpoor S. (2020). The Role of Health Promoting Behaviors and Health Beliefs in Predicting of Corona Anxiety (COVID-19) among Nurses. 9 (4): 1-10. http://ijnv.ir/article-1-777-en.html
24. Fathy Karkaragh F, Mahdiani Z, Taheri H, Habibi. D, FazlAli.H, AboMohammadi.S, Tayaran. M. (2022). Investigating And Analyzing The Modulating Role Of Corona Anxiety In The Relationship Between Cognitive Regulation Of Emotion And Psychological Disorders Of Students With Special Needs. Journal of Positive School Psychology. 2022; 6 (8): 7782-7795. https://journalppw.com/index.php/jpsp/article/view/11149.
25. Fathy karkaragh F, Taheri H, Gozalova S. Investigating (2021). The Perfecting Role of the Attachment in the Corona Anxiety to Primary Schools Students of Ardabil city. Journal of Family Relations Studies ; l(1): 39 – 46. https://doi.org/10.22098/JHRS.2022.9025.1005.
26. Fillenbaum GG, Blay SL, Mello MF, Quintana MI, Mari JJ, Bressan RA, Andreoli SB. (2019). Use of mental health services by community-resident adults with DSMIV anxiety and mood disorders in a violence-prone area: Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Affect Disord. 250: 145-52.
27. Fischhoff, B. (2020). Speaking of Psychology: Coronavirus Anxiety. In:
28. Galea, S., Merchant, R. M., & Lurie, N. (2020). The mental health consequences of COVID-19 and physical distancing: the need for prevention and early intervention. JAMA Internal Medicine .180(6), 817-818.
29. Gao, J.; Zheng, P.; Jia, Y.; Chen, H.; Mao, Y.; Chen, S.; Dai, J. (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS ONE, 215, e0231924. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
30. Garnefski N, Kraaij V, & Spinhoven P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and depression. Personality and Individual Differences. 2001; 30: 1311-1327.
31. Gross JJ. (2013(, Handbook of emotion regulation: Guilford publications
32. Grubic, N.; Badovinac, S.; Johri, A.M. (2020). Student mental health in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for further research and immediate solutions. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry, 66, 517–518. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
33. Holloway, I. W., Traube, D. E., Schrager, S. M., Tan, D., Dunlap, S., & Kipke, M. D. (2017). Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts. Plos One, 12(9), 1-17.
34. Hovenkamp-Hermelink, J. H., Jeronimus, B. F., Spinhoven, P., Penninx, B. W., Schoevers, R. A., & Riese, H. (2019). Differential associations of locus of control with anxiety, depression and life-events: A five-wave, nine-year study to test stability and change. Journal of affective disorders, 253, 26-34.
35. Husky, M. M., Kovess-Masfety, V., & Swendsen, J. D. (2020). Stress and anxiety among university students in France during Covid-19 mandatory confinement. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 102, Article 152191.
36. L’Abate L. Programmed writing. Research on Writing Approaches in Mental Health. 2011; 23: 115.
37. Lazarus R.. (1991). Cognition and motivation in emotion. Am Psychol 1991; 46: 352˚67.
38. Lee S. A, & Crunk E. A. (2020). Fear and psychopathology during the COVID -19 crisis: neuroticism, hypochondriasis, reassurance-seeking, and coronaphobia as fear factors. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying; 0030222820949350.
39. Lewis, C., & Thompson, R. (2023). The Role of Emotion Regulation in Managing Anxiety Amid a Global Pandemic: A Study on U.K. University Students. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(4), 456-472.
40. Melnyk BM. )2020(. Reducing healthcare costs for mental health hospitalizations with the evidence-based COPE program for child and adolescent depression and anxiety: A cost analysis. J Pediatr Health Care. 34(2): 117-21.
41. Milioni M, Alessandri G, Eisenberg N, Castellani V, Zuffianò A, Vecchione M, et al. (2015). Reciprocal Relations Between Emotional SelfEfficacy Beliefs and Ego-Resiliency Across Time. J Pers ;83(5):552-63.
42. Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (2018). Anxiety and threat-related attention: Cognitive-motivational framework and treatment. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22(3), 225–240.
43. Mohammadi, H., Sepehri Shamloo, Z., asghari ebrahim abad, M. (2019). The Effectiveness of Group Emotional Schema Therapy on Decreasing Psychological Distress and Difficulty in Emotional Regulation in Divorced Women. Thoughts and Behavior in Clinical Psychology, 14(51), 27-36. https://jtbcp.riau.ac.ir/article_1481.html?lang=en
44. Mosheva M, Hertz-Palmor N, Dorman Ilan S, Matalon N, Pessach IM, Afek A, et al. (2020). Anxiety, pandemic-related stress and resilience among physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression and Anxiety. 2020;37(10):965-971.
45. Mosheva M, Hertz-Palmor N, Dorman Ilan S, Matalon N, Pessach IM, Afek A, Ziv A, Kreiss Y, Gross R, Gothelf D. (2020). Anxiety, pandemic-related stress and resilience among physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depress Anxiety, Oct;37(10):965-971. doi: 10.1002/da.23085. Epub 2020 Aug 12. PMID: 32789945; PMCID: PMC7436709.
46. Niusha, B., Rajabi, A. (2019). Comparison of Cognitive Emotion Regulation, Happiness and Distress Intolerance in Conscripts with High and Low Risk Behaviors. Military Psychology, 10(39), 65-82. https://jmp.ihu.ac.ir/article_204912.html?lang=en
47. Panayiotou G, Panteli M, Leonidou C. (2021). Coping with the invisible enemy: The role of emotion regulation and awareness in quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Contextual Behav Sci; 19:17-27. [DOI:10.1016/j.jcbs.2020.11.002].
48. Patel, V., & Kumar, S. (2023). Modulation of Psychological Disorders by Cognitive Emotion Regulation: Insights from the COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 48(2), 134-145.
49. Pearlin LI. The family as a context of the stress process. Stress and health: Issues in research methodology. 1987: 143-65.
50. Rajkumar RP. )2020 .(COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatry. 52:102066.
51. Ran L, Wang W, Ai M, Kong Y, Chen J, Kuang L. (2020). Psychological resilience, depression, anxiety, and somatization symptoms in response to COVID-19: A study of the general population in China at the peak of its epidemic. Social Science & Medicine ;262:113261.
52. Roth, G., Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R. M. (2019). Integrative emotion regulation: Process and development from a self‐determination theory perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 31(3), 945–956. 10.1017/S0954579419000403 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
53. Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. (2020). Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr.; 51: 1-7.
54. Sajjadi MS, Askarizadeh Gh. (2015). Role of Mindfulness and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies on Predicting the Psychological Symptoms of Medical Students. Educ Strategy Med Sci; 8 (5): 301-308. http://edcbmj.ir/article-1-872-en.html
55. Smith K, Mason T, Anderson NL, Lavender JM. (2019). Unpacking cognitive emotion regulation in eating disorder psychopathology: The differential relationships between rumination, thought suppression, and eating disorder symptoms among men and women. Eat Behav; 32:95-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.01.003 PMid:30677597.
56. Tyra AT, Ginty AT, John-Henderson NA. (2021). Emotion regulation strategies predict PTSS during the covid-19 pandemic in an American Indian Population. Int J Behav Med; 28(6):808-12. [PMID]
57. Urry, H. L., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotion regulation in older age. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(6), 352-357.
58. Wang H-Y, Zhang X-X, Si C-P, Xu Y, Liu Q, Bian H-T, et al. (2018). Prefrontoparietal dysfunction during emotion regulation in anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment;14:1183.
59. Wang, G.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, F. (2020). Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lance, 395, 945–947. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
60. Wu, C., Zhou, L., & Zhang, Y. (2023). Examining the Influence of Coronavirus Anxiety on Psychological Disorders Among Chinese College Students. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 102250.
61. Zimmermann, P., & Iwanski, A. (2014). Emotion regulation from early adolescence to emerging adulthood and middle adulthood: Age differences, gender differences, and emotion-specific developmental variations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38(2), 182-194.