Main Article Content

Dr. Bharat Sukhija
Dr. Mohammed Mustafa Khan
Jyotish Kumar Gupta
Dr. Satyapriya Roy
Abhinandan Das



Introduction: Optimal nutrition during first two years of life is crucial for the survival, healthy growth, and development of infants and young children. Working women in India comprise a major constituent of mothers whose feeding decisions impact the status of their child health. So, this study focused on working women to assess IYCF practices among respondents as per WHO and to correlates the characteristics of respondent’s breast-feeding practices.

Material & Methods: This study was carried out by the Department of Pediatrics, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, UP. It involved working mothers of children of age 0-24 months visited for vaccination. A single face-to-face interview was done after informed consent and semi‑structured questionnaire based on the standard questionnaire on IYCF practices given by WHO.

Results: In our study, the majority of the mothers are in the age group of 20-24 years (37.5%) and 25-29 years (25%) and schooled up to middle and high school, 23.75% and 7. 23% respectively. 60% have adhered to exclusive breastfeeding practices although one-fourth of the participants initiated breastfeeding a day after childbirth. Only 56.6% of mothers were continue to breast fed their child while 19% of the participants gave mixed feed to their children, 11% fed on cow’s milk and 10% women gave powder milk in place of mother milk. Proper feeding practices is significantly associated with increasing age, literacy status and social support.

Conclusion: There is a gap of optimal feeding behavior among working mothers in studied population and only 56.6% of mothers were continue to breast fed their child. There is a pressing need to facilitate successful implementation of national guidelines. Giving safe and friendly place for feeding at working area holds promise as an effective intervention to ensure healthier feeding practices.

Abstract 257 | pdf Downloads 150


1. World Health Organisation. Infant and young child feeding. WHO, Geneva; 2014 [updated 2014 February]. Available at: http://www. Accessed June 4, 2023.
2. World Health Organisation. Infant and young child feeding: Fact sheet N°342. WHO, Geneva; 2014; Available at: http://www.who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs342/en/. Accessed September 19, 2023.
3. Bhutta, ZA, Ahmed, T, Black, RE, Cousens, S, Dewey, K, Giugliani, E. What works?Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival. Lancet. 2008; 371 (9610): 417- 40.
4. WHO. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. WHO, Geneva; 2021. Available at: bitstreams/1341846/retrieve#:~:text=WHO %20
5. Sudarshan, RM, Bhattacharya, S. Through the magnifying glass: women’s work and labor force participation in urban Delhi. Economic and Political Weekly. 2009; 44(48): 59-66.
6. Ryan, AS, Zhou, W, Arensberg, MB. The effect of employment status on breastfeeding in the United States. Women’s Health Issues. 2006; 16 (5): 243-51.
7. Kimbro, RT. On-the-job moms: work and breastfeeding initiation and duration for a sample of low-income women. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2006; 10(1):19-26.
8. NRHM. National Rural Health Mission (2019-2021) Mission document. New Delhi: MOHFW, Government of India, New Delhi; 2021.
9. NFHS. National Family Health Survey-5 2019-2020. Available at: https://main.mohfw. Accessed on 1 May 2023.
10. National guidelines on infant and young child feeding. Ministry of human resource development. Available at Accessed 25th September 2023
11. Young child feeding global strategy for infant. Available at Accessed 25th September 2023
12. Rajak P, Krishna Mandal A, Kumar Jana J, et al. (April 04, 2023) Knowledge of Breastfeeding Practices Among Mothers Attending a Tertiary Care Setting in East India. Cureus 15(4): e37146. DOI 10.7759/cureus.37146
13. N.A.Gebeyehu,, Tegegne K D, Shewangashaw N E et al. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Public Health in Practice 5 (2023) 100373,1-9
14. Mbada, et al., Knowledge, attitude, and techniques of breastfeeding among Nigerian mothers from a semi-urban community, BMC Res. Notes 6 (2013) 552. http: //; 2-8
15. R.R. Marzo, et al., Knowledge, attitude and practice on exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Malaysia, Int. Med. J. 26 (2) (April 2019) 77–80.
16. M.O. Oche, A.S. Umar, H. Ahmed, Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Kwara, Nigeria, Afr. Health Sci. 11 (3)
17. Dukuzumuremyi, et al., Knowledge, attitude, and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in East Africa: a systematic review, Int. Breastfeed. J. (2020) 15–70.
18. Dolley Tshering, Mongal Singh Gurung, Neyzang Wangmo, Dorji Pelzom, Knowledge attitude and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among breastfeeding mothers in Trongsa district, Bhutan, Bhutan Health J. 5 (1)
19. Behzadifar, et al., Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice in the first six months of life and its determinants in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Pediatr. 19 (2019) 384,
20. O.O. Balogun, A. Dagvadorj, K.M. Anigo, E. Ota, S. Sasaki, Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review, Matern. Child Nutr. 11 (4) (2015) 433–451.
21. Aguayo VM, Gupta G, Singh G, Kumar R. Early initiation of breast feeding on the rise in India. BMJ Global Health. 2016;1:e000043.
22. UNICEF. Infant and young child feeding. UNICEF. 2017. Available at Accessed 25th September 2023
23. Smith ER, Hurt L, Chowdhury R, Sinha B, Fawzi W, Edmond KM. Delayed breastfeeding initiation and infant survival: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):1-16.
24. Chandhiok N, Singh KJ, Sahu D, Singh L, Pandey A. Changes in exclusive breastfeeding practices and its determinants in India, 1992-2006: analysis of national survey data. Int Breastfeeding J. 2015; 10:34.
25. Karmee N, Satapathy SP, Tripathy RM. Infant and young child feeding practices among mothers attending an Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC): a cross-sectional (mixed methodology) study in Berhampur, South Odisha, India. Int J Contemp Pediatr 2018; 5:161-8.