Main Article Content
Green chemistry, Sustainability, Greener solvents, Toxicity reduction
Background: The drug discovery and development process traditionally involve the use of hazardous chemicals, high energy consumption, and generates significant waste, leading to adverse environmental impacts. To address these concerns, the integration of green chemistry principles has gained attention in the field.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and discuss the implementation of green chemistry strategies in the field of drug discovery and development.
Method: Green chemistry strategies included the use of computational methods and high-throughput screening to prioritize compounds, the utilization of greener solvents and reaction conditions, the implementation of innovative techniques like flow chemistry to reduce waste, and the design of molecules with reduced toxicity and improved biodegradability.
Result: By adopting green chemistry strategies, drug discovery and development processes can minimize resource consumption, waste generation, and the use of hazardous chemicals. This approach also leaded to improved efficiency, safety, and sustainability.
Conclusion: The incorporation of green chemistry principles in drug discovery and development offers significant potential for the pharmaceutical industry to develop safer, more effective drugs while reducing their environmental impact. Implementing these strategies promotes a greener and more sustainable future for drug development.
2. Constable DJ, Dunn PJ, Hayler JD, Humphrey GR, Leazer Jr JL, Linderman RJ, Lorenz K, Manley J, Pearlman BA, Wells A, Zaks A. Key green chemistry research areas—a perspective from pharmaceutical manufacturers. Green Chemistry. 2007;9(5):411-20.
3. Dunn PJ. The importance of green chemistry in process research and development. Chemical Society Reviews. 2012;41(4):1452-61.
4. Eilks I, Rauch F. Sustainable development and green chemistry in chemistry education. Chemistry Education Research and Practice. 2012;13(2):57-8.
5. Matus KJ, Clark WC, Anastas PT, Zimmerman JB. Barriers to the implementation of green chemistry in the United States. Environmental science & technology. 2012 Oct 16;46(20):10892-9.
6. Nameroff TJ, Garant RJ, Albert MB. Adoption of green chemistry: an analysis based on US patents. Research Policy. 2004 Sep 1;33(6-7):959-74.
7. Wilson MP, Schwarzman MR. Toward a new US chemicals policy: rebuilding the foundation to advance new science, green chemistry, and environmental health. Environmental health perspectives. 2009 Aug;117(8):1202-9.
8. Anastas PT, Kirchhoff MM. Origins, current status, and future challenges of green chemistry. Accounts of chemical research. 2002 Sep 17;35(9):686-94.
9. Erythropel HC, Zimmerman JB, de Winter TM, Petitjean L, Melnikov F, Lam CH, Lounsbury AW, Mellor KE, Janković NZ, Tu Q, Pincus LN. The Green ChemisTREE: 20 years after taking root with the 12 principles. Green chemistry. 2018;20(9):1929-61.
10. Cue BW, Zhang J. Green process chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews. 2009 Dec 1;2(4):193-211.
11. Gillet S, Aguedo M, Petitjean L, Morais AR, da Costa Lopes AM, Łukasik RM, Anastas PT. Lignin transformations for high value applications: towards targeted modifications using green chemistry. Green Chemistry. 2017;19(18):4200-33.
12. Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT, Erythropel HC, Leitner W. Designing for a green chemistry future. Science. 2020 Jan 24;367(6476):397-400.
13. Boit TB, Bulger AS, Dander JE, Garg NK. Activation of C–O and C–N bonds using non-precious-metal catalysis. ACS catalysis. 2020 Sep 10;10(20):12109-26.
14. Ge S, Green RA, Hartwig JF. Controlling first-row catalysts: amination of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides and bromides with primary aliphatic amines catalyzed by a BINAP-ligated single-component Ni (0) complex. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014 Jan 29;136(4):1617-27.
15. Wang L, Wang Y, Shen J, Chen Q, He MY. Nickel-catalyzed cyanation of phenol derivatives activated by 2, 4, 6-trichloro-1, 3, 5-triazine. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 2018;16(26):4816-20.
16. Tian Q, Cheng Z, Yajima HM, Savage SJ, Green KL, Humphries T, Reynolds ME, Babu S, Gosselin F, Askin D, Kurimoto I. A practical synthesis of a PI3K inhibitor under noncryogenic conditions via functionalization of a lithium triarylmagnesiate intermediate. Organic Process Research & Development. 2013 Jan 18;17(1):97-107.
17. Ashraf M, Ahmad MS, Inomata Y, Ullah N, Tahir MN, Kida T. Transition metal nanoparticles as nanocatalysts for Suzuki, Heck and Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 2023 Feb 1; 476:214928.
18. Jordan A, Hall CG, Thorp LR, Sneddon HF. Replacement of less-preferred dipolar aprotic and ethereal solvents in synthetic organic chemistry with more sustainable alternatives. Chemical reviews. 2022 Feb 24;122(6):6749-94.
19. Ashcroft CP, Dunn PJ, Hayler JD, Wells AS. Survey of solvent usage in papers published in organic process research & development 1997–2012. Organic Process Research & Development. 2015 Jul 17;19(7):740-7.
20. Zhang J, Yan N. Production of Glucosamine from Chitin by Co‐solvent Promoted Hydrolysis and Deacetylation. ChemCatChem. 2017 Jul 24;9(14):2790-6.
21. Semsarilar M, Abetz V. Polymerizations by RAFT: Developments of the Technique and Its Application in the Synthesis of Tailored (Co) polymers. Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics. 2021 Jan;222(1):2000311.
22. Iravani S, Korbekandi H, Mirmohammadi SV, Zolfaghari B. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods. Research in pharmaceutical sciences. 2014 Nov;9(6):385.
23. Koenig SG, Bee C, Borovika A, Briddell C, Colberg J, Humphrey GR, Kopach ME, Martinez I, Nambiar S, Plummer SV, Ribe SD. A green chemistry continuum for a robust and sustainable active pharmaceutical ingredient supply chain. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 2019 Sep 19;7(20):16937-51.
24. Dunn PJ, Wells AS, Williams MT. Future trends for green chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry. Green Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry. 2010 Feb 2; 16:333-55.