Main Article Content

Dr. Rohan Shinkre
Shayori Mitra
Dr. Pooja Balurkar
Dr Pallavi Pawar
Dr. Sujithra S B
Dr. Anjana Sathyanath


Awareness, Dental undergraduates, Developing countries, Education, Sexually Transmitted Infections


In developing nations, the frequency of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), a serious public health issue, is alarmingly high. Dental students are a distinct population within the healthcare system, and their level of understanding and preparedness to manage STIs can have an impact on public health outcomes. This review analyses the effects of low STI awareness among dentistry students through a sociological and scientific lens, investigates the causes of this knowledge gap, and suggests recommendations for educational improvements. To that purpose, we chose relevant scientific publications published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus scientific information databases using specific selection criteria. By addressing this matter, we hope to advance thorough sexual health education and equip dental students with the tools they need to make a meaningful contribution to STI prevention and control initiatives

Abstract 234 | pdf Downloads 138


1. Kassie BA, Yenus H, Berhe R, Kassahun EA. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated factors among the University of Gondar students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Reprod Health. 2019 Nov 8;16(1):163. doi: 10.1186/s12978-019-0815-5
2. World Health Organization. Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections: overview and estimates.
3. World Health Organization. Guidelines for sexually transmitted infections surveillance. World Health Organization; 1999.
4. WHO C, CDR E. Global prevalence and incidence of curable STIs. Geneva. World Health Organization. 2001.
5. Guaschino S. Le complicanze delle malattie sessualmente trasmesse: clinica e terapia. ANNALI-ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITA. 2000;36(4):431-6.
6. Hogben M, Leichliter JS. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities. Sexually transmitted diseases. 2008 Dec 1:S13-8.Sukumaran A. Resurgence of syphilis: Challenges for dental care providers. J Dent Res Rev 2016;3:115-6
7. Moleri AB, Lobo CB, Santos FR, Silva EJ, Gouvêas CVD, Moreira LC. Differential diagnosis of manifestations of syphilis and aids with lichen planus in mouth: case report. J Bras Doenças Sex Transm. 2012;24(2):113-7.
8. Strieder LR, León JE, Carvalho YR, Kaminagakura E. Oral syphilis: report of three cases and characterization of the inflammatory cells. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2015;19(2):76-80.
9. Smith MH, Vargo RJ, Bilodeau EA, Anderson KM, Trzcinska A, Canterbury CR, Fantasia JE, Rawal YB. Oral Manifestations of Syphilis: a Review of the Clinical and Histopathologic Characteristics of a Reemerging Entity with Report of 19 New Cases. Head Neck Pathol. 2021 Sep;15(3):787-795.
10. Birt D, Main J. Oral manifestations of herpes simplex virus infections. Laryngoscope. 1977 Jun;87(6):872-8.
11. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, Koehler J, Leibowitz S, Tsai P, Feldman JL. Sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America. The journal of sexual medicine. 2017 Apr;14(4):535-40.
12. Beebe S, Payne N, Posid T, Diab D, Horning P, Scimeca A, Jenkins LC. The lack of sexual health education in medical training leaves students and residents feeling unprepared. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2021 Dec;18(12):1998-2004.
13. Komlenac N, Siller H, Hochleitner M. Medical students indicate the need for increased sexuality education at an Austrian medical university. Sex Med. 2019; 7 (3): 318–25.
14. Marwick C. Survey says patients expect little physician help on sex. Jama. 1999 Jun 16;281(23):2173-4.
15. Facio Jr FN, Glina S, Torres LO, Abdo C, Abdo JA, Faria G. Educational program on sexual medicine for medical students: pilot project in Brazil. Translational andrology and urology. 2016 Oct;5(5):789.
16. Ende J, Kazis L, Ash A, Moskowitz MA. Measuring patients’ desire for autonomy: decision making and information-seeking preferences among medical patients. Journal of general internal medicine. 1989 Jan;4:23-30.
17. Latifnejad Roudsari R, Javadnoori M, Hasanpour M, Hazavehei SM, Taghipour A. Socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Iran J Reprod Med. 2013 Feb;11(2):101-10.
18. Rowe D, Ng YC, O'Keefe L, Crawford D. Providers' Attitudes and Knowledge of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health. Fed Pract. 2017 Nov;34(11):28-34.
19. Morris, M., Cooper, R.L., Ramesh, A. et al. Training to reduce LGBTQ-related bias among medical, nursing, and dental students and providers: a systematic review. BMC Med Educ 19, 325 (2019).
20. Garofalo R. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. The National Academies Press; 2011 Jun 24.
21. Chapman EN, Kaatz A, Carnes M. Physicians and implicit Bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities. J Gen Intern Med. 2013;28(11):1504–10.
22. Khan A, Plummer D, Hussain R, Minichiello V. Does physician bias affect the quality of care they deliver? Evidence in the care of sexually transmitted infections. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84(2):150–1.
23. Van Ryn M, Saha S. Exploring unconscious bias in disparities research and medical education. Jama. 2011 Sep 7;306(9):995-6.
24. Verrastro V, Saladino V, Petruccelli F, Eleuteri S. Medical and Health Care Professionals’ Sexuality Education: State of the Art and Recommendations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2186.
25. Haboubi NH, Lincoln N. Views of health professionals on discussing sexual issues with patients. Disabil Rehabil. 2003 Mar 18;25(6):291-6.
26. Nguyen SH, Dang AK, Vu GT, Nguyen CT, Le THT, Truong NT, Hoang CL, Tran TT, Tran TH, Pham HQ, Dao NG, Tran BX, Latkin CA, Ho CSH, Ho RCM. Lack of Knowledge about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Implications for STDs Prevention and Care among Dermatology Patients in an Urban City in Vietnam. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Mar 26;16(6):1080.
27. Low N, Broutet NJ. Sexually transmitted infections—research priorities for new challenges. PLoS medicine. 2017 Dec 27;14(12):e1002481.
28. Zestcott, C. A., Blair, I. V., & Stone, J. (2016). Examining the presence, consequences, and reduction of implicit bias in health care: A narrative review. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 19(4), 528–542.
29. Orlando G, Campaniello M, Iatosti S, Grisdale PJ. Impact of training conferences on high-school students' knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). J Prev Med Hyg. 2019 Jun 28;60(2):E76-E83.
30. Al-Elq AH. Simulation-based medical teaching and learning. J Family Community Med. 2010 Jan;17(1):35-40.
31. Sanders KA, de Saxe Zerden L, Zomorodi M, Ciarrocca K, Schmitz KL. Promoting Whole Health in the Dental Setting: Steps Toward an Integrated Interprofessional Clinical Learning Environment Involving Pharmacy, Social Work, and Nursing. International Journal of Integrated Care. 2021 Oct;21(4)