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Colorectal cancer is a prevalent condition, with an approximate annual global incidence of 1.8 million cases. Given the projected rise in its occurrence, this disease is increasingly posing a significant global health concern. Surgical intervention continues to be the principal therapeutic modality for the management of colorectal cancer. However, the occurrence of cancer recurrence after surgery is prevalent, constituting the leading cause of mortality among those afflicted with this ailment. Paradoxically, the physiological stress induced by curative surgery has the potential to create a conducive microenvironment for the progression of cancer, affecting both the immunological and neuro-humoral systems. The perioperative period holds significant importance in the progression of metastasis and cancer reoccurrence. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the impact of perioperative regional anesthesia on metastasis and tumors recurrence, it is crucial to consider the perioperative window within its appropriate context. Typically, individuals diagnosed with solid tumors can be effectively treated with surgical interventions, either with or without the inclusion of pre and post-surgical adjuvant therapies such as radiation treatment, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. The outcomes obtained from the assessment of the utilization of RA in colorectal tumors exhibit a heterogeneous pattern. The benefits of regional anesthesia are influenced by several key criteria, namely the stage and type of colorectal cancer, the patient's age, the timing of epidural administration, and the American Society of Anesthesiology physical state classification. Research has demonstrated that RA does not provide any significant advantages in terms of overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and biochemical recurrence-free survival.
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