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Ayesha Kousar
Maria Khalid
Amina Zaib
Sofia Razzaq Meo
Maria Tariq
Azka Rizvi
Ali Ahmad Sheikh


Citric Acid, Garlic Powder, Oregano Powder, Chicken Meat


The assurance of poultry meat quality and safety is a paramount concern for public health and trade. Pathogenic microorganisms, notably Salmonella enteritidis, jeopardize meat quality, necessitating effective interventions. This study investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of citric acid, garlic extract, and oregano seeds in reducing Salmonella enteritidis counts on chicken meat. Notably, Salmonella enteritidis is a leading foodborne pathogen associated with poultry products, contributing to substantial global gastroenteritis cases and fatalities. The emergence of drug-resistant strains due to indiscriminate antibiotic use underscores the urgency for viable alternatives. Spices such as garlic, oregano, and citric acid have gained attention for their potential antibacterial properties. In this research, comprehensive analyses were conducted on the effectiveness of these natural antimicrobial agents. Citric acid exhibited substantial inhibition zones at varying concentrations, leading to complete reductions in Salmonella enteritidis counts on chicken meat over different time intervals. Similarly, garlic extract demonstrated significant reductions in bacterial counts, with concentrations of 50%, 75%, and 100% exhibiting promising results. Oregano seeds' hexane extract also displayed potent antimicrobial properties, completely eradicating initial Salmonella enteritidis counts. Furthermore, the combined treatment of citric acid and garlic extract showcased synergistic antimicrobial activity. These findings underscore the potential of natural agents in enhancing food safety and quality by effectively reducing bacterial contamination in poultry products. The study contributes valuable insights into sustainable approaches for countering microbial threats in the food supply chain, ultimately ensuring consumer health and well-being

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