Main Article Content

Priya nagar
Deepanshu kumar
Anjali kumari
Piyush Mittal


Pharmacoeconomics, Adverse Drug reaction, Adverse events, Surgery ADRs


Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are frequently underreported. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a severe health hazard that leads to avoidable patient burden and hospital admissions; hence pharmacovigilance education is critical. Only a few educational initiatives have long-term benefits on healthcare personnel' understanding of pharmacovigilance and adverse event reporting. Our healthcare practitioners of the future should develop a sufficient set of pharmacovigilance skills in order to rationally prescribe, distribute, and monitor medications. This study is being carried out to irrational use of medications of various classes in surgery department which can cause unexpected and life- threating adverse drug reactions and noxious events. Due to that adverse drug reaction or noxious events the stay of the patient in hospital gets prolonged which can make him/her suffer the unexpected financial burden.

Abstract 300 | pdf Downloads 134


1) Formica D, Sultana J, Cutroneo PM, Lucchesi S, Angelica R, Crisafulli S, Ingrasciotta Y, Salvo F, Spina E, Trifirò G. The economic burden of preventable adverse drug reactions: a systematic review of observational studies. Expert Opin Drug Saf. (2018);vol-17(7);pg-681-695.
2) Thürmann PA. Methods and systems to detect adverse drug reactions in hospitals. Drug Saf. (2001);vol-24(13);pg-961-968.
3) Rajakannan T, Mallayasamy S, Guddattu V, Kamath A, Vilakkthala R, Rao PG, Bairy LK. Cost of adverse drug reactions in a South Indian tertiary care teaching hospital. J Clin Pharmacol. (2012); vol-52(4);pg-559-565.
4) Paluzzi RG. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery. Med Clin North Am. (1993);vol-77(2);pg-427-41.
5) Thiesen S, Conroy EJ, Bellis JR, Bracken LE, Mannix HL, Bird KA, Duncan JC, Cresswell L, Kirkham JJ, Peak M, Williamson PR, Nunn AJ, Turner MA, Pirmohamed M, Smyth RL. Incidence, characteristics and risk factors of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children - a prospective observational cohort study of 6,601 admissions. BMC Med. (2013) vol-11:237.
6) Yadav d, Acharya R P. Incidence and severity associated with adverse drug reaction in surgery inpatients. J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. (2015); Vol- 7(9); pg-671-675
7) Ahmad A, Patel I, Parimilakrishnan S, Mohanta GP, Chung H, Chang J. The role of pharmacoeconomics in current Indian healthcare system. J Res Pharm Pract. (2013); vol-2(1); pg-3-9.
8) Wilson J.P, Rascati K.L, Pharmacoeconomics, June 18(2016):,medical%2C%20indirect%2C%20and%20intangible.
9) Sultana J, Cutroneo P, Trifirò G. Clinical and economic burden of adverse drug reactions. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. (2013); vol-4; pg-S73-S77.
10) Lundkvist J, Jönsson B. Pharmacoeconomics of adverse drug reactions. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. (2004); vol-18(3); pg-275-280.
11) Rodrigues G S, Khan S A. Pharmacovigilance among surgeons and in surgical wards: overlooked or axiomatic. Indian J Surg. (2011); vol-73(1); pg-4-8.
12) Petrova G, Stoimenova A, Dimitrova M, Kamusheva M, Petrova D, Georgiev O. Assessment of the expectancy, seriousness and severity of adverse drug reactions reported for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy. SAGE Open Med. (2017); vol-5; pg-1-8.
13) Hadi MA, Neoh CF, Zin RM, Elrggal ME, Cheema E. Pharmacovigilance: pharmacists' perspective on spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting. Integrated Pharmacy Res Pract. 2017; 6:91–8.
14) Aagaard L, Strandell J, Melskens L, Petersen PS, Hansen EH. Global patterns of adverse drug reactions over a decade. Drug Safety. 2012;35(12):1171-82.
15) Chan S L, Ang X, Sani L L. Prevalence and characteristics of adverse drug reactions at admission to hospital: a prospective observational study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (2016); vol-82(6); pg-1636-1646.
16) Hagos L, Fessehaye S, Anand I.S. Nature, and prevalence of adverse drug reaction of antiretroviral medications in Halibet National Referral Hospital: a retrospective study. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol (2019); pg-20-24.
17) Coleman JJ, Pontefract SK. Adverse drug reactions. Clin Med (Lond). 2016 Oct;16(5):481-485. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.16-5-481.
18) Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar, Nordin Bin Simbak, Mainul Haque. Adverse Drug Reactions: Predisposing Factors, Modern Classifications and Causality Assessment. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(9): Sept. 2014 Page 1091-1098.
19) Kumar A.P., Bhoopathi D., et al. An overview of various scales used in casualty assessment of adverse drug reactions. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12: pg-1-5.
20) Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM, Sandor P, Ruiz I, Roberts EA, Janecek E, et al. A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharacol Ther. (1981); vol- 30:pg-239–245.
21) Srinivasan et al. Adverse Drug Reaction Casuality Assessment. IJRPC 2011, 1(3).
22) Shamim S, Sharib SM, Malhi SM, et al. Adverse drug reactions (ADRS) reporting: awareness and reasons of under-reporting among health care professionals, a challenge for pharmacists. Springerplus. (2016); vol-5(1):pg-1778-1882.
23) Giardina C, Cutroneo P.M, Mocciaro E, et al. Adverse Drug Reactions in Hospitalized Patients: Results of the FORWARD (Facilitation of Reporting in Hospital Ward) Study. Frontiers in Pharmacology, (2018). Vol- 9, pg-350–359.
24) Kim J., Ostroph A.D, tips for managing adverse drug reaction, jan 25(2017)
25) Edwards I.R. Adverse Drug Effects and Their Clinical Management: A Personal View. Drug Saf (2014); vol-37; pg-383–390.
26) Sheffer AL, Pennoyer DS. Management of adverse drug reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol. (1984) vol-74; pg-580-588.
27) Wikipedia contributors. "Pharmacoeconomics." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 28 Mar. 2022. Web. 27 May. 2022.
28) Rai M, Goyal R. Pharmacoeconomics in Healthcare., Pharmaceutical Medicine and Translational Clinical Research. pg-465–472.
29) Thomas D, Hiligsmann M, John D, Al Ahdab OG, Li H. Pharmacoeconomic Analyses and Modeling. InClinical Pharmacy Education, Practice and Research (2019); pg.- 261-275.
30) Miller P. Role of pharmacoeconomic analysis in R&D decision making: when, where how? Pharmacoeconomics. (2005); vol-23(1): pg. 1-12.
31) Wertheimer AI. The Importance of Pharmacoeconomics. Journal of Pharmacovigilance. Vol-2(1)115.
32) Owers K.M, Pharmacoeconomics is everyone's business. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, (2016); vol-46(2); pg-192–192.
33) Tonin FS, Aznar-Lou I, Pontinha VM, Pontarolo R, Fernandez-Llimos F. Principles of pharmacoeconomic analysis: the case of pharmacist-led interventions. Pharm Pract. (2021); vol-19(1):2302.
34) Qing-ping, S., Xiao-dong, J., Feng, D. et al. Consequences, measurement, and evaluation of the costs associated with adverse drug reactions among hospitalized patients in China. BMC Health Serv Res 14, 73 (2014).
35) Clementi, Emilio; Perrone, Valentina; Conti, Valentino; Venegoni, Mauro; Scotto, Stefania; Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Prestini, Lucia; Radice, Sonia; Vighi, Giuseppe Danilo. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization. ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research, (2014). Vol-(6); pg-505–514.
36) Hyunah S, Jaehun C, Youngho L, Jong y. k, Suehyun L. Real-world data-based adverse drug reactions detection from the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System databases with electronic health records-based detection algorithm. Health Informatics Journal. (2021); vol- 27(3).
37) Pirmohamed M, James S, Meakin S, et al. Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18 820 patients. BMJ. (2004); vol-329; pg-15-19.
38) Dalton K, Byrne S. Role of the pharmacist in reducing healthcare costs: current insights. Integr Pharm Res Pract. (2017); vol-6: pg37-46. Pudoi:10.2147/IPRP.S108047
39) Chan, S.L, Ng, H.Y, Sung C. et al. Economic burden of adverse drug reactions and potential for pharmacogenomic testing in Singaporean adults. Pharmacogenomics J. (2019); vol-19, pg-401–410.
40) Kongpakwattana k, Dilokthornsakul P, Dhippayom T, Chaiyakunapruk N,Clinical and economic burden of postsurgical complications of high-risk surgeries: A cohort study in Thailand. Journal of Medical Economics, (2020); vol-23(10); pg-1046-1052.
41) Onder G, Petrovic M, Tangiisuran B, et al. Development and Validation of a Score to Assess Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions Among In-Hospital Patients 65 Years or Older: The GerontoNet ADR Risk Score. Arch Intern Med. (2010);vol-170(13):pg-1142–1148.
42) Tyson R.J, Park C.C, Powell R.J, Patterson H.J, Weiner D Watkins P.B, Gonzalez D. Precision Dosing Priority Criteria: Drug, Disease, and Patient Population Variables. Frontiers in Pharmacology, (2020) vol-11, 420.
43) Bodrogi J, Kaló Z. Principles of pharmacoeconomics and their impact on strategic imperatives of pharmaceutical research and development. Br J Pharmacol. (2010); vol-159(7):pg-1367-1373.
44) Wöhrl S. Clinical work-up of adverse drug reactions. Expert Review of Dermatology, (2007);vol- 2(2); pg-217–231.
45) Priyadi A., Permana H., Muhtadi A., Sumiwi, S.A., Sinuraya, R.K., Suwantika, A.A. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Treatment in Patients with Complications of Kidney and Peripheral Vascular Diseases in Indonesia. Healthcare (basel). (2021), vol-9, 211.
46) McKee M, Haines A, Ebrahim S. et al. Towards a comprehensive global approach to prevention and control of NCDs. Global Health. (2014) vol-10, 74.
47) Elsisi, Gihan H.; Kaló, Zoltán; Eldessouki, Randa; Elmahdawy, Mahmoud D.; Saad, Amr; Ragab, Samah; Elshalakani, Amr M.; Abaza, Sherif (2013). Recommendations for Reporting Pharmacoeconomic Evaluations in Egypt. Value in Health Regional Issues, 2(2), pg-319–327.
48) Measuring burden of disease: the concept of QALYs and DALYs dec 1(2011),
49) Shrestha S, Sharma S, Bhasima R, Kunwor P, Adhikari B, Sapkota B. Impact of an educational intervention on pharmacovigilance knowledge and attitudes among health professionals in a Nepal cancer hospital. BMC Med Educ. (2020); vol-20(1):179.
50) Staniszewska A, Dąbrowska-Bender M, Olejniczak D, Duda-Zalewska A, Bujalska-Zadrożny M. Patient knowledge on reporting adverse drug reactions in Poland. Patient Prefer Adherence. (2016); vol-11:pg-47-53.
51) Tabali, M., Jeschke, E., Bockelbrink, A. et al. educational intervention to improve physician reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in a primary care setting in complementary and alternative medicine. BMC Public Health (2009); 9, 274.
52) Bisht M, Singh S, Dhasmana D. C., Effect of Educational Intervention on Adverse Drug Reporting by Physicians: A Cross-Sectional Study, International Scholarly Research Notices. (2014), volume 2014 pages 8.
53) Reumerman, M., Tichelaar, J., Piersma, B. et al. Urgent need to modernize pharmacovigilance education in healthcare curricula: review of the literature. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. (2018); vol-74, pg-1235–1248.
54) Vo TH, Dang TN, Nguyen TT, Nguyen DT. An Educational Intervention to Improve Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting: An Observational Study in A Tertiary Hospital in Vietnam. Arch Pharma Pract (2020); vol-11(3):pg-32-37.
55) Khade A, Bashir M, Sheethal A. Prescription pattern in the department of surgery in a tribal district hospital of andhra pradesh, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. (2013); vol-3(3):pg-438-441.
56) Jain S, Upadhyaya P, Goyal J, et al. A systematic review of prescription pattern monitoring studies and their effectiveness in promoting rational use of medicines. Perspect Clin Res. (2015); vol-6(2):86-90.