CORRELATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS: CASE CONTROL STUDY

Main Article Content

Dr. Jai Prakash Gangani
Dr. Yadvendra Gupta
Dr. Utsav Joshi
Dr. Madhvi Sanwelka

Keywords

Lung, Diabetes Mellitus, Spirometry, Glycemic control

Abstract

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycaemia. The duration of diabetes and the glycemic control are the important factors that determine the risk of lung involvement in diabetes. The majority of the people with type 2 diabetes are under a chronic glycemic burden which places them at significant risk of such complications. Spirometry is a widely used pulmonary function test, ideally suited to describe the effects of obstruction or restriction of lung function. The present study was undertaken to determine if there is difference between pulmonary functions (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/ FVC, PEFR, FEF 25-75%) of patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and those of healthy controls.


Material and method: This study was case control observational analytical type and done in two years in Department of General Medicine from October 2021 to September 2023 in a tertiary care centre. Sample size taken was 100 subjects (50 cases & 50 controls)


Result: Mean FVC was found to be lower in cases as compared to controls (70.68 + 20.42 vs. 91.17 + 21.11) & p-value (0.0001) was found to be extremely statistically significant. Mean FEV1 was found to be lower in cases as compared to controls (73.92 + 20.87 vs. 86.03 + 15.75) & p-value (0.0015) was found to be very statistically significant. Mean FEV1/FVC was found to be higher in cases as compared to controls (105.26+ 10.16 vs. 97.26 + 11.98) & p-value (0.0005) was found to be extremely statistically significant. Mean PEFR was found to be lower in cases as compared to controls (64.1 + 20.64vs. 83.67 + 23.24) & p-value (0.0001) was found to be extremely statistically significant. Mean FEF 25-75%  was found to be higher in cases as compared to controls (71.8 + 28.06 vs. 68.04 + 30.20) & p-value (0.5205) was found to be not statistically significant.


Conclusion: The conclusion drawn from this study is that the  type 2 diabetes mellitus being a systemic disease, also affects lungs .This is likely to be a chronic complication of  type 2 DM. Spirometry can be used as the screening tool.

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