Main Article Content

Leonard Tochukwu Ugwuanyi (Phd)
Cajetan Ikechukwu Egbe (Ph.D)
Uloh_Bethels A. Chinyeaka (Ph.D)
Terfa Ahon Adaka (Ph.D)
Mary Ashelo Umbugadu (M.Ed)
Oluka Beth Nnenne (Ph.D)
Grace Ngozi Adama (Ph.D)
Emelogu Ngozi Ugonma (M.Ed)
Ngozi Georgina Okoyeukwu (M.Ed)
Mary Chinyere Okengwu (Ph.D)
Jacinta E. Ugbelu (Ph.D)
Scholastica Germma Anyanwu (M.Ed)


Coping strategies, depressive symptoms, hearing impairment


Background of the study: English language students with hearing impairment (ELSHI) who employed bicultural skills to regulate their emotions had less depressive symptoms than those who employed withdrawal and covering strategies. The objective of this study was to ascertain the factors that predispose ELSHI to depressive symptoms and types of coping strategies employed to regulate their depressions in the special schools for the deaf in Enugu, Enugu State- Nigeria

 Methods: The research design employed for this study was exploratory design with a total of 78 participants with depressive symptoms involved in the study. The measures employed for collection of data included means of communication in use at home scale (MCHS), type of schools attended scale (TSAS), age of onset of hearing impairment scale (AOHIS) and the degree of hearing impairment scale (DHIS). Repeated measure analysis of variance was employed for statiscal analysis.

 Result: The result obtained showed that students with hearing impairment who employed bicultural skills to regulate their depressive behaviors had less depressive symptoms than those who employed withdrawal and covering strategies.

 Conclusion: The researchers conclude that the bicultural skills offered to students with hearing impairment to regulate their depressive behaviors significantly reduced their depressive symptoms.

 Abbreviations: MCHS=means of communication in use at home scale, TSAS= types of school attended scale, AOHIS= age of onset of hearing impairment scale, DHIS=degree of hearing impairment scale, ELSHI = English Language Students with hearing Impairment.

Abstract 171 | pdf Downloads 73


1. Adigun, O, T. (2017). Depression and individuals with hearing loss: A systematic
2. American Association of Psychiatric, 2013, doi:10.1176/appi.books. 9780890425596
3. Bat- Chava, Y. (1994). Group identification and self-esteem of deaf adults. Personality and Psychology Bulletin, 20,494-502.
4. Bat- Chava, Y. (2000). Diversity of deaf identities. American Annals of the Deaf. 145, 420-427.
5. Birmaher, B; Byan, N.D; Williamson, D.E; Brent, D.A; Kauffman, J. & Dahl, R.E, et al (1996). Childhood and adolescent depression: A review of the past 10 years party. Journal of the American Academy of child and adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1427-1439.
6. Blood, G.W; Boyle, M.P; Blood, I.M; & Nalesmik, G.R. (2010). Bullying in Children who stutter: Speech-language pathologist’s perceptions and intervention strategies. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35, 92-109.
7. Boyle, M.P. (2013). Psychological characteristics and perception of stuttering of adults who stutter with and without support group experience. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 368- 381.
8. Crow, T.V (2003). Self-esteem scores among deaf college students: An examination of gender and parents’ hearing status and signing ability. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8, 199-206.
9. Davey, C.G; Yucel, M & Allen, N.B. (2008). The emergency of depression in adolescents’ development of the prefrontal cortex and the representation of reward. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, (1), 1-19.
10. Desselle, D. B & Pearlmutter, L. (1997). Navigating two cultures: Deaf children, parents’ communication patterns. Social Work in Education, 19, 23-31.
11. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). 2013 Centre for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2016. Washton, D.C.
12. Drubaker, R.G. (1994). Acculturative stress: A useful framework for understanding the experience of deaf Americans. Journal of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association, 28, 1-15.
13. Emerton, R.G. (1996). Marginality, biculturalism and social identity of the deaf people. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
14. Folkman, & Lazarus, (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community Sample. A Journal OF Health and Social Behavior, 21, 219-239.
15. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma. New York: Simon and Schuster Fellinger, J; Holzinger, D; Beitel, C; Laudht, M. & Goldberg, D.P. (2009). The impact of language skills on mental health in teenagers with hearing impairment. Acta, Psychiatrica, Scandinavia, 120, 153-159.
16. Hillburn, S; Marini, I; & Slate, J.R. (1997). Self-esteem among deaf versus hearing children with deaf versus hearing parents. Journal of American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association, 30, 9-12.
17. Jambore, E. & Elliott, M. (2005). Self-esteem and coping strategies among deaf students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10 (1), 63-81.
18. Kluvin, T. (1999). Co-teaching deaf and hearing students: Research on social integration. American Annals of the Deaf, 144, 339-344.
19. Lane, H. (1992). The mask of benevolence. New York: Vintage Books.
20. Lane, H; Hoffmerster, R. & Behan, B. (1996). A journey into the deaf world San Diego: Dawnsign Press.
21. Lewinsohn, P.M; Clark, G.N; Seeley, J.R. & Bolide, D. (1994). Major depression in community adolescents: Age of onset, episode declaration and time to recurrence. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 809-818.
22. Moeller, M. (2007). Current state of knowledge: Psychological development in children with hearing impairment. Ear and Hearing, 28,724-739.
23. Mota, D.A; Ramos, M.A; Bansal, N; Khan, R, Guille, C; Di Angelantonio. E; Seu, S. (2015). Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms among resident physicians. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA, 314 (22), 2373-2383.
24. Murray, E.D; Buttner, N. & Price, B.H. (2012). Depression and psychosis in neurological practice in neurology in clinical practice, 6th Edition. Bradley. W.G, Daroff, R.B. Fenichel, G. Jankovic, S. (Eds). Butterworth Heinemann.
25. Ogunwale, O.R. (2016). Determinants of suicidal ideation among persons with hearing impairment in Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences. Retrieved from http://det- (2421-8251).
26. Peterson, T.J. (2012). Coping skills for battling depression: Here is what you Need.
27. Preiss, J. Remschmdt, (2007). Depressive disorders in childhood and adolescence. Zeitschrift fur kuder und jugendpsychiatrie and Psycholotherapie. 35. 385- 397. review. Journal of Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7; 323 doi,10..4172\2161-0487.1000323. 7(5). 1000232.
28. Schmidt, P. (2005). Mood, depression, and reproductive hormones in menopausal transition. The American Journal of Medicine, 118 Suppl, 12 (12), 54-8.
29. Sehli, S. Arslan, E. Belgin. (2009). Depressive, emotioning in adolescents with cochlear implant and normal hearing. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 73, 1774- 1779.
30. Warner-Czcy, A.D; Loy, B.A; Evans, C; Wetsel, A, & Toby, E.A. (2015). Self-esteem in children and adolescents with hearing loss. Trend in Hearing, 19,1-12.