Main Article Content
Asplenium trichomanes L, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Anthelmintic
In this study the crude extracts of Asplenium trichomanes L. collected from Malam Jabba, Swat valley KP, Pakistan obtained in non-polar (n-Hexane, chloroform) to polar (ethanol and distilled water) solvents. These crude extracts were evaluated for their phytochemical composition, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and anticancer effects. Qualitative analysis of these crude extracts showed presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, reducing sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, and terpenoids in the rhizome, fronds, and sori extracts of this fern. Using the well diffusion method, the antifungal activity was evaluated against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae and the antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in triplicates. Zone of inhibition was measured in (mm) and was compared to standard discs. Chloroform extract showed notable inhibition, particularly in fronds that showed a zone of inhibition measuring 16.17±0.52 mm against Bacillus subtilis as opposed to the typical disc Gentamycin measuring 18±0.11 mm. Antioxidant activity was carried out to assess ABTS radical scavenging, metal chelating, DPPH assay, Total phenolic content and Total Flavonoid content. Results were compared with standard curve. For anthelmintic activity intestinal parasite of sheep and goat (Haemonchus contortus) which resides in fouth part of stomach (abomasum) and intestine was selected. Ethanolic extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity dueto its remarkable response in antimicrobial activity. Ethanol extracts of fronds, rhizome and sori were prepared in concentration of 12.5 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml. 2 ml of each concentration was poured on ten adult Haemonchus contortus worms in a petriplate. Experiment was carried out in triplicates. Paralysis and death time of worms was noted every hour for about 7 hours. Results were compared with albendazole taken as standard. For anticancerous activity, crude extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity on aforementioned cell lines using MTT assay. The obtained result demonstrated selective anticancerous activity. It has been determined that A. trichomanes L. has a long ethnopharmacological history and is a potent medicinal herb.
2. V. Duraipandiyan, M. Ayyanar and S. Ignacimuthu. Antimicrobial activity of some ethno medicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India. BMC complementary and Alternative Medicine 6: 35-45 (2006).
3. M. Ramos-e-Silva, C.M. Lima, R.C. Schechtman, B.M. Trope and S. Carneiro. Superficial mycoses in immunodepressed patients (AIDS). Clinics in Dermatology 28: 217-230 (2010).
4. G.A. Ayoola, H.A.B. Coker, S.A. Adesegun, A.A. Adepoju-Bello, K. Obaweya, E.C. Ezennia and T.O. Atangbayila. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activities of Some Selected Plants Used for Malaria Therapy in Southwestern Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 7: 1019-1029 (2008).
5. J.H. Jorgensen and J.D. Turnidge. Susceptibility Test Methods: Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods. In: Manual of Clinical Microbiology. PR Murray, EJ Baron, JH Jogensen, ML Landry & ML Pfaller (Ed.), ASM Press, Washington D.C., p. 1152-1178 (2007).
6. R. Cruick-Shank, J.P. Dugid, B.P. Marininon and R.H. Swain. Screening of Some Greek Aromatic Plants for Antioxidant Activity. Phytotherapy Research 17: 194-213 (1975).
7. D.A. Johansen. Plant Microtechnique. MCGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York., p. 94 (1940).
8. K. Lee and T. Shibamoto. Antioxidant Property of Aroma Extract Isolated from Clove Bud
9. T.C.P. Dinis, M. Maseira, V.M. Clark and L.M. Almeidam. Antioxidant Potential Assessment. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 315: 161-175 (1994).
10. V. Dewanto, X. Wu, K.K. Adom and R.H. Liu. Determination of Antioxidant Assay of Different Samples. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50: 3010-3023 (2002).
11. R. Re, N. Pellegrini, A. Proteggente, A. Pannala, M. Yang and C. Rice-Evans. Antioxidant Assay of Samples. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26: 1231-1245 (1999).
12. T. Ghosh, T.K. Maity, A. Bose and G.K. Dash. Anthelmintic activity of Bacopa monierri. Indian Journal of Natural Products 21: 16-32 (2005).
13. S. Manzoor, A. Bilal, S. Khan, Rahimullah, S. Iftikhar, A. Emwas, and A. Faisal. Identification and characterization of SSE15206, a microtubule depolymerizing agent that overcomes multidrug resistance. Scientific Reports 8: 3305-3317 (2018).
14. A.M. Ismail, T.O. Al-Khasreji and B.K. Maulood. Phytochemical andantioxidant activity of Asplenium species (spleenworts) extracts from nothern districts of Iraq. Engineering and Technology Journal 37: 248-264 (2019).
15. J.F. Balch and P.A. Balch. Prescription for Nutritional Healing. Penguin Putnam Inc., New York p. 267 (2000).
16. R. Fato, E. Estornell, S. Di Bernardo, F. Pallotti, G.P. Castelli and G. Lenaz. Steady-state kinetics of the reduction of coenzyme Q analogs by complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in bovine heart mitochondria and submitochondrial particles. Biochemistry 35: 2705-2728 (1996).
17. S.Z. Ahmad, Z. Khan and S.A. Mirza. Assessment of ethnopharmacological potential of Cyperus difformis L. in terms of its' phytochemistry, antibacterial, antioxidant andanticancer attributes. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 50: 12918 (2022).
18. Z. Selamoglu. The Natural products and healthy life. Journal of Traditional medicine and clinical naturopathy 7: 2-24 (2018).
19. R. Barr, R.S. Pan, F.L. Crane, A.O. Brightman and D.J. Morre. ́ Destruction of vitamin K1 of cultured carrot cells by ultraviolet radiation and its effect on plasma membrane electron transport reactions. Biochemistry International 27: 449-462 (1992).
20. D. Prajapati, A.S. Jadon and K. Purohit. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of dryopteris filix-mas using earthworm. World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews 16: 886-892 (2022).