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Ling Ling Lai
Chen Soon Chee
Shamsulariffin Samsudin
Fatin Nur Shahira Zamri
Boon Hooi Lim


360° TitaniUM Core Strength Exercise©, core training, physical performances, low back pain, amateur table tennis players


This study investigated the effects of the 360° TitaniUM Core Strength Exercise© on the physical performances of amateur table tennis (TT) players within the Malaysian public sector and its potential to reduce the risk of low back pain (LBP). Twenty participants were recruited from various government departments in Negeri Sembilan. They were randomly assigned to either the core exercise group (CE) or the control group (CON). The CE group underwent a six-week intervention featuring the 360° TitaniUM Core Strength Exercise©, while the CON group followed their usual routine. Physical performances were assessed using isometric endurance, flexibility, strength, balance, and stability tests, whereas LBP was measured through the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The results exhibited significant improvements in CE group's isometric endurance, flexibility, and strength (p < .05), along with notable enhancements in trunk balance and stability. Furthermore, the CE group demonstrated a trend towards reduced LBP risk as indicated by VAS scores (p < .05). These findings suggest that the 360° TitaniUM Core Strength Exercise© holds promise for enhancing physical performances and potentially mitigating LBP among amateur TT players in the Malaysian public sector. Further research could explore long-term effects and its potential applications across diverse populations and sports disciplines.

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