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Blood transfusion, blood donor, Seroprevalence and TTIA (transfusion-transmitted infectious agent)
Introduction: Blood donation plays a crucial role in saving lives during emergencies, surgical procedures, and medical treatments. However, rural areas in India often face a shortage of donors, whether voluntary or replacement. Additionally, the emergence of Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious agents (TTIA) poses new challenges to ensuring safe blood transfusions, as these infections can include hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis, and malaria, among others. The objective of this study is to analyze the blood donation patterns among different age groups and the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infectious agents in recent years at the blood bank of Hind Institute of Medical Sciences in Ataria Sitapur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Method: For this retrospective study, data were collected from the medical records of blood donors at the blood bank from January 2018 to December 2022. The information was then analyzed to draw meaningful conclusions.
Results: The study included a total of 2445 healthy donors. Notably, a majority of the donated blood (approximately 95.7%) was contributed through replacement donors, while voluntary blood donors (VBD) accounted for only about 4.3% of the donations. However, over the past two years, the overall total donation nearly doubled, and this increase was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.000039). Among the donors, the 20-30 years age group, predominantly comprising males, contributed most to the donated blood (p < 0.008).
Regarding transfusion-transmitted infections, the study revealed that the seroprevalence of HBV (hepatitis B virus) was 1.3%, followed by HCV (hepatitis C virus) at 0.65%, HIV at 0.04%, VDRL (syphilis) at 0.08%, and malaria at 0.08% during the last five years. Interestingly, a considerable number of these infections were detected in the younger population aged 20-30 years.
Conclusion: The findings indicate that the majority of blood donations come from the younger population, aged 20 to 30 years, which can be attributed to changing attitudes towards blood donation in recent years. To ensure safer blood transfusions, strict blood safety measures and precautions are necessary to prevent transfusion-transmitted infections at the blood bank.
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