LA OBESIDAD Y SUS EFECTOS CAUSALES DE INFERTILIDAD MASCULINA: REVISIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA

Main Article Content

Diana Guerra https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5401-1061
Patricia Vanegas https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2792-5225

Keywords

fertilidad, infertilidad masculina, masculina, obesidad, sobrepeso

Abstract

Fundamentos: La obesidad representa un factor de riesgo para muchas enfermedades, incluyendo la infertilidad masculina. Los hombres obesos tienen más probabilidades de experimentar problemas de infertilidad debido a alteraciones de la función reproductiva por disminución de la calidad y producción del esperma.


Método: Estudio descriptivo de revisión bibliográfica, basado en la búsqueda de documentos científicos sobre la obesidad y la infertilidad masculina en español, inglés y portugués publicados dentro de los últimos 5 años, en bases de datos como PubMed, Scopus, Sciencie Direct, Web of Science, Scielo, acordes a criterios de inclusión y exclusión planteados.


Resultados: En la búsqueda documental se evidencia que la infertilidad masculina se relaciona significativamente con la obesidad por mecanismos que generan hipogonadismo secundario, elevación de la leptina, resistencia a la insulina, alteraciones en la testosterona y en la concentración de espermatozoides y calidad del semen. Los hombres son responsables del 40 a 50% de casos de infertilidad. La infertilidad masculina primaria es la forma más común a nivel mundial, actualmente el aumento de casos de síndrome metabólico, del índice de masa corporal (IMC) y del índice cintura cadera incrementan el riesgo de infertilidad y subfertilidad masculina.


Conclusiones: Existe una relación clara entre la obesidad y la infertilidad masculina, la obesidad puede afectar la fertilidad masculina negativamente mediante varios mecanismos y contribuir a otros problemas de salud sexual que dificultan la concepción. En general, los hombres obesos que desean concebir deben trabajar para mejorar su salud, reducir y mantener su peso para optimizar su fertilidad.

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