Main Article Content

Himanshu Sharma
Rashmi Pathak
Siddharth Jain
Maulshree Bhandari
Riya Mishra
Km Reena
Prakhar Varshney


Ficus racemosa, phytochemicals composition, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities


Ficus racemosa Linn. (Family: Moraceae) is known as the cluster fig tree or Gular. A moderate-sized tree found throughout India either wild or cultivated for its fruits eaten by villagers. Ayurveda and Unani, the traditional Indian medical system, has employed the popular medicinal plant Ficus racemosa for many years to treat a variety of illnesses and disorders, including skeleton diseases, diabetes, inflammatory, hyperlipidemia, hemorrhoids, respiratory, liver dysfunction, antitussive, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, and various GIT disorders. Numerous phytoconstituent components have been different parts of extracts and phytochemical screening of the Ficus racemosa. In light of the numerous recent results on this plant, that is much more significant. A thorough explanation of this plant is traditionally beneficial, phytoconstituents, and biological effects on this review.

Abstract 510 | Pdf Downloads 201


1. J. Pattar, N.B. Shridhar, K. Suhasini, M.L. Satyanarayana, Evaluating the protective role and phytotoxic effect of Ficus virens in wistar albino rats, J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 7 (2018) 301–304.
2. A. Walia, N. Kumar, R. Singh, H. Kumar, V. Kumar, R. Kaushik, A.P. Kumar, Bioactive compounds in Ficus fruits, their bioactivities, and associated health benefits: a review, J. Food Qual. 2022 (2022) 1–19.
3. A.V. Anand, V. Bharathi, G. Bupesh, J. Lakshmi, K.M. Sundaram, M. Saradhadevi, Identification of novel potent pancreatic lipase inhibitors from Ficus racemosa, Biomedicine. 41 (2021) 23–30.
4. S.Y. Angell, L.D. Silver, G.P. Goldstein, C.M. Johnson, D.R. Deitcher, T.R. Frieden, M.T. Bassett, Cholesterol control beyond the clinic: New York City’s trans fat restriction, Ann. Intern. Med. 151 (2009) 129–134.
5. S.H. Ganatra, S.P. Durge, S.U. Patil, Preliminary phytochemicals investigation and TLC analysis of Ficus racemosa leaves, J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 4 (2012) 2380–2384.
6. T.A. Hajam, H. Saleem, Phytochemistry, biological activities, industrial and traditional uses of fig (Ficus carica): A review, Chem. Biol. Interact. (2022) 110237.
7. A. Poongothai, K.P. Sreena, K. Sreejith, M. Uthiralingam, S. Annapoorani, Preliminary phytochemicals screening of Ficus racemosa Linn. Bark, Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2 (2011) 431–434.
8. K. Murti, U. Kumar, V. Lambole, S. PB, M. AP, Pharmacological properties of Ficus racemosa-a review, Pharmacologyonline. 2 (2010) 802–807.
9. B. Joseph, S.J. Raj, Phytopharmacological and phytochemical properties of three Ficus species-an overview, Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 1 (2010) 246–253.
10. S. Cherian, K.T. Augusti, Insulin sparing action of leucopelargonin derivative isolated from Ficus bengalensis Linn, Indian J. Exp. Biol. 33 (1995) 608–611.
11. M. Mudhafar, H. Alsailawi, M. Abdulrasool, R.K.M. Jawad, A. Mays, Mini-Review Of Phytochemicals Of Ten Ficus Species, Int. J. Chem. Res. (2021) 7–18.
12. T. Shaikh, R. Rub, K. Bhise, R.B. Pimprikar, Antibacterial activity of Ficus racemosa Linn. Leaves on Actinomyces viscosus, J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2 (2010) 41.
13. R. Mishra, A.K. Tiwari, Phytochemical and chromatographic studies in the latex of Ficus racemosa Linn, Asian J. Plant Sci. Res. (2011).
14. K. V Kosankar, A.N. Aher, The Phytoconstituents and pharmacological actions of Ficus racemosa Linn (Family: Moraceae)-An updated review, PharmaTutor. 6 (2018) 55–63.
16. K.R. Kirtikar, B. Das Basu, Indian medicinal plants., Indian Med. Plants. (1918).
17. G.K. Chaware, V. Kumar, S. Kumar, P. Kumar, Bioactive compounds, pharmacological activity and food application of Ficus racemosa: a critical review, Int. J. Fruit Sci. 20 (2020) S969–S986.
18. B. Pravin, T. Anil, J. Shreyas, K. Kishanchandra, Pharmacological review on Ficus racemosalinn., Int. J. Pharm. Res. Bio-Science. 1 (2012) 51–66.
19. A.K. Keshari, G. Kumar, P.S. Kushwaha, M. Bhardwaj, P. Kumar, A. Rawat, D. Kumar, A. Prakash, B. Ghosh, S. Saha, Isolated flavonoids from Ficus racemosa stem bark possess antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and protective effects in albino Wistar rats, J. Ethnopharmacol. 181 (2016) 252–262.
20. A.R. Shiksharthi, S. Mittal, Ficus racemosa: phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological properties: a review, Int J Recent Adv Pharm Res. 4 (2011) 6–15.
21. F. Ahmed, A. Urooj, Traditional uses, medicinal properties, and phytopharmacology of Ficus racemosa: A review, Pharm. Biol. 48 (2010) 672–681.
22. K. Murti, U. Kumar, Enhancement of wound healing with roots of Ficus racemosa L. in albino rats, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2 (2012) 276–280.
23. B. Joseph, S.J. Raj, Phytopharmacological properties of Ficus racemosa Linn-An overview, Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 3 (2010) 134–138.
24. H. Akhtar, O.P. Virmani, S.P. Popli, L.N. Misra, M.M. Gupta, G.N. Srivastava, Z. Abraham, A.K. Singh, Dictionary of Indian medicinal plants, CIMAP, Lucknow. 173 (1992).
25. M. Kumar, P.K. Verma, I. Sharma, S.K. Upadhyay, R. Singh, Taxonomical and Ethnobotanical Studies of Ficus racemosa L.(Dicotyledonae: Moraceae) in Socioeconomic Perspective from New Forest Dehradun, (2021).
26. R.M. Kunwar, R.W. Bussmann, Ficus (Fig) species in Nepal: a review of diversity and indigenous uses, Lyonia. 11 (2006) 85–97.
27. R.B. Rao, K. Anupama, K.R.L.A. Swaroop, T. Murugesan, M. Pal, S.C. Mandal, Evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of Ficus racemosa bark, Phytomedicine. 9 (2002) 731–733.
28. I. CSIR, Dendrocalamus (Gramineae), Wealth India, Raw Mater. Vol, CSIR, New Delhi. 1952 (1952) 32–34.
29. F. Ahmed, A. Urooj, Cardioprotective activity of standardized extract of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubicin-induced toxicity, Pharm. Biol. 50 (2012) 468–473.
30. Y.P. Adhikari, P. Bhandari, D.M. Adhikari, R.M. Kunwar, Ficus species (Ficus auriculata Lour., Ficus benghalensis L., Ficus carica L., Ficus religiosa L., Ficus semicordata Buch. Ham. ex Sm)., in: Himal. Fruits Berries, Elsevier, 2023: pp. 171–182.
31. A. El Ghouizi, D. Ousaaid, H. Laaroussi, M. Bakour, A. Aboulghazi, R.S. Soutien, C. Hano, B. Lyoussi, Ficus carica (Linn.) Leaf and Bud Extracts and Their Combination Attenuates Type-1 Diabetes and Its Complications via the Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Foods. 12 (2023) 759.
32. A. Paramanya, N. Patel, D. Kumar, F.Z. Kamal, B.M. Yiğit, P. Sundarrajan, P. Balyan, J. Khan, A. Ali, Preventive Roles of Phytochemicals from Ficus carica in Diabetes and Its Secondary Complications, in: Fig (Ficus Carica) Prod. Process. Prop., Springer, 2023: pp. 539–559.
33. V. V Patil, N.G. Sutar, R.B. Pimprikar, A.P. Patil, R.Y. Chaudhari, V.R. Patil, Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Ficus racemosa leaves, J. Nat. Remedies. 10 (2010) 11–16.
34. D. Gardia, A.K. Mishra, S. Priyadarsini, R. Tanty, B. Parua, A. Khamari, Effects of herbal ointment prepared from ethanolic extract of Ficus racemosa leaves on wound causing bacteria, (n.d.).
35. A.K. Singh, P. Arun, J. Shukla, A. Kumar, M.K. Nandi, Z. Abduljaleel, S.S. Al-Ghamdi, A.R. Alzahrani, N. Shahzad, A Review on Traditional Anti-ulcer Medicinal Plants, Lett. Drug Des. Discov. 20 (2023) 408–419.
36. M.M. Amin, S. Bhakta, S.K. Das, Anti-diabetic potential of Ficus racemosa: current state and prospect especially in the developing countries, J Biosci Agric Res. 5 (2015) 65–72.
37. E.P. Lansky, H.M. Paavilainen, A.D. Pawlus, R.A. Newman, Ficus spp.(fig): Ethnobotany and potential as anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents, J. Ethnopharmacol. 119 (2008) 195–213.
38. N. Pahari, S. Majumdar, D. Karati, R. Mazumder, Exploring the Pharmacognostic properties and pharmacological activities of phytocompounds present in Ficus racemosa linn.: A concise review, Pharmacol. Res. Chinese Med. (2022) 100137.
39. A.K. Mohiuddin, S.A.W. Lia, Medicinal & Biological Investigations of Ficus Racemosa, For. Agric. Rev. 1 (2020) 29–81.
40. T. Mishra, B.B. Panigrahi, M.K. Pani, Physicochemical Investigation And Development Of Antimicrobial Herbal Cream Of Ficus Racemosa Linn. Leaf Extracts, J. Pharm. Negat. Results. 14 (2023) 180–191.
41. B. Bagyalakshmi, P. Nivedhitha, A. Balamurugan, Studies on phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Ficus racemosa L. leaf and fruit extracts against wound pathogens, Vegetos. 32 (2019) 58–63.
42. R.K. Yadav, B.C. Nandy, S. Maity, S. Sarkar, S. Saha, Phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical trial of Ficus racemosa, Pharmacogn. Rev. 9 (2015) 73.
43. S.K. Shah, G. Garg, D. Jhade, H. Pandey, Ficus racemosa linn: Its potentials food security and rural medicinal management, J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 8 (2016) 317.
44. S.A. Bhalerao, D.R. Verma, N.C. Teli, V.S. Didwana, S.S. Thakur, Ficus racemosa Linn.: a comprehensive review, J. Appl. Chem. 3 (2014) 1423–1431.
45. A. Kumar, S. Joseph, L. Tsechansky, I.J. Schreiter, C. Schüth, S. Taherysoosavi, D.R.G. Mitchell, E.R. Graber, Mechanistic evaluation of biochar potential for plant growth promotion and alleviation of chromium-induced phytotoxicity in Ficus elastica, Chemosphere. 243 (2020) 125332.
46. S. Mawa, K. Husain, I. Jantan, Ficus carica L.(Moraceae): phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities, Evidence-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2013 (2013).
47. K. Murti, U. Kumar, M. Panchal, M. Shah, Exploration of preliminary phytochemical studies of roots of ficus racemosa, Marmara Pharm. J. 15 (2011) 80–83.
48. J. Bheemachari, K. Ashok, N.H. Joshi, D.K. Suresh, V.R.M. Gupta, Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of Ficus racemosa LINN., Latex, Acta Pharm. Sci. 49 (2007).
49. R.K. Jat, S.V. Kotwal, Pharmacognostic study, traditional uses and pharmacological study of Ficus racemosa-A Critic Review, J. Curr. Pharma Res. 11 (2020) 3967–3980.
50. A. Faiyaz, P. Sharanappa, U. Asna, Antibacterial activities of various sequential extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark, Pharmacogn. J. 2 (2010) 203–206.
51. S. Akbar, S. Akbar, Ficus racemosa L.(Moraceae) (Syns.: F. glomerata Roxb.; Covellia glomerata (Roxb.) Miq.), Handb. 200 Med. Plants A Compr. Rev. Their Tradit. Med. Uses Sci. Justifications. (2020) 923–930.
52. V.P. Londhe, S.S. Nipate, A.H. Tiwari, Investigation of in vitro antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Ficus racemosa leaves, J. Pharm. Res. 5 (2012).
53. S. Dharmadeva, L.S. Galgamuwa, C. Prasadinie, N. Kumarasinghe, In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Ficus racemosa L. bark using albumin denaturation method, Ayu. 39 (2018) 239.
54. K. Murti, U. Kumar, Antimicrobial activity of Ficus benghalensis and Ficus racemosa roots L, Am. J. Microbiol. 2 (2011) 21–24.
55. P.K. Dubey, P. Yaduwanshi, V. Gouttam, Ficus racemosa lin-Gooler A review, World J. Pharm. Res. 7 (2018) 325–341.
56. P. Deep, K.A. Singh, M.T. Ansari, P. Raghav, Pharmacological potentials of Ficus racemosa—a review, Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 22 (2013) 29–34.
57. E.P. Lansky, H.M. Paavilainen, S. Lansky, Acacias: The Genus Acacia (sensu lato), CRC Press, 2023.
58. F. Ahmed, A. Urooj, A.A. Karim, Protective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubucin-induced renal and testicular toxicity, Pharmacogn. Mag. 9 (2013) 130.
59. S. Bhanuse, V. Gokhale, J. Dawane, M. Deshpande, N. Nangare, Anti-Obesity Effect Of Bark Of Ficus Racemosa In High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats, J. Pharm. Negat. Results. (2022) 351–356.
60. S. Shinde, P.S. Rao, S.B. Dighe, T.P. Dukare, Isolation of Phytochemical and Evaluation of Antiasthmatic Potency of Ficus racemosa, J. Drug Deliv. Ther. 9 (2019) 107–109.
61. S. Suvarna, S. Rao Priya, R.S. Jadhav, T.P. Dukare, A PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW ON FICUS RACEMOSA, (2019).
62. U. Suriyakalaa, D.A. Ananth, R. Ramachandran, D. Sankarganesh, J. Angayarkanni, Z. Tietel, S. Achiraman, Analysis of phytochemical composition of a leaf extract of sacred fig (Ficus religiosa L.) by UPLC-QqQ-MS and assessment of its hepatocurative potential in mouse model, South African J. Bot. 151 (2022) 198–207.
63. C.H. Chandrashekhar, K.P. Latha, H.M. Vagdevi, V.P. Vaidya, Anthelmintic activity of the crude extracts of Ficus racemosa, Int. J. Green Pharm. 2 (2008).
64. E.B. Devanesan, A.V. Anand, P.S. Kumar, P. Vinayagamoorthy, P. Basavaraju, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Ficus religiosa, Syst. Rev. Pharm. 9 (2018) 45–48.
65. C. Kapile, A. Kulkarni, P. Pardeshi, A. Sayed, A. Nehe, Ficus religiosa: A beneficial medicinal plant, J. Drug Deliv. Ther. 12 (2022) 210–218.
66. D. Singh, B. Singh, R.K. Goel, Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus religiosa: A review, J. Ethnopharmacol. 134 (2011) 565–583.
67. M.P. Pothare, M.S. Shingare, M.S. Mundhe, D. Shende, A Systematic Review on Traditional Uses of Bioactive Phytoconstituents of Ficus Sycomorous, J. Homepage Www. Ijrpr. Com ISSN. 2582 (n.d.) 7421.
68. S. Kakar, M. Shah, R. Jain, Some medicinal plants with anti-fertility potential: a current status, J. Basic Clin. Reprod. Sci. 7 (2018).
69. D. Ahirwar, B. Ahirwar, M.D. Kharya, Reversible Antifertility Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ficus Racemosa L. in Male Mice, J. Reprod. Contracept. 22 (2011) 37–44.
70. V. Soni, A.K. Jha, J. Dwivedi, P. Soni, Qualitative and quantitative determination of phytoconstituents in some antifertility herbs, Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 80 (2018) 79–84.
71. G. Khosla, V. Sharma, V.K. Shukla, A Review on Birth control: Natural source as Anti-fertility agents, Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 15 (2022) 3331–3337.
72. T. Pingale, P. Duse, S. Ogale, Antibacterial and antifungal approaches of Ficus racemosa, Pharmacogn. J. 11 (2019).
73. H. Nawaz, R. Waheed, M. Nawaz, Phytochemical composition, antioxidant potential, and medicinal significance of Ficus, Mod. Fruit Ind. 1 (2020) 20.
74. S. Abusufyan, M. Ibrahim, K. Mohib, Comparative in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of various extracts of Ficus species, Pharmacogn. J. 10 (2018).
75. Y. Liu, W. Zheng, L. Zhang, L. Hu, X. Liu, J. Cheng, G. Li, M. Gong, Metabolomics-based evidence of the hypoglycemic effect and alleviation of diabetic complications by Ficus racemosa fruit in diabetic mice, Food Funct. 13 (2022) 7871–7884.
76. P.K. Shinde, P.B. Bhosale, V.D. Devkule, Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Ficus religiosa, Res. J. Sci. Technol. 15 (2023) 49–53.
77. S. Rastogi, M.S. Iqbal, D. Ohri, In vitro study of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants and their interrelationship, In Vitro. 11 (2018) 2455–3891.
78. H. Sharma, R. Pathak, N. Kumar, L. Nogai, R. Mishra, M. Bhandari, M. Koli, P. Pandey, Endocannabinoid System: Role in Depression, Recompense, And Pain Control, J. Surv. Fish. Sci. 10 (2023) 2743–2751.
79. S. Yadav, V.K. Gupta, A. Gopalakrishnan, M.R. Verma, Antioxidant activity analysis of Ficus racemosa leaf extract, J. Entomol. Zool. Stud. 7 (2019) 1443–1446.
80. S. Bhatia, A. Al-Harrasi, Y.A. Shah, M. Jawad, M.S. Al-Azri, S. Ullah, M.K. Anwer, M.F. Aldawsari, E. Koca, L.Y. Aydemir, Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Chitosan and Sodium Alginate Based Films Incorporated with Ficus Extract, Polymers (Basel). 15 (2023) 1215.
81. M. Mirahmad, S. Mohseni, O. Tabatabaei-Malazy, F. Esmaeili, S. Alatab, R. Bahramsoltani, H.-S. Ejtahed, H. Qulami, Z. Bitarafan, B. Arjmand, Antioxidative hypoglycemic herbal medicines with in vivo and in vitro activity against C-reactive protein; a systematic review, Phytomedicine. (2022) 154615.
82. R. Nasution, M. Mustanir, Is. MARzUkI, Isolation compound anti-obesity from the Bark Ara (Ficus racemosa) of Aceh, Orient. J. Chem. 32 (2016) 2693–2699.
83. R. Pathak, H. Sharma, A review on medicinal uses of Cinnamomum verum (Cinnamon), J. Drug Deliv. Ther. 11 (2021) 161–166.
84. C. V Rao, A.R. Verma, M. Vijayakumar, S. Rastogi, Gastroprotective effect of standardized extract of Ficus glomerata fruit on experimental gastric ulcers in rats, J. Ethnopharmacol. 115 (2008) 323–326.
85. V.P. Veerapur, K.R. Prabhakar, V.K. Parihar, M.R. Kandadi, S. Ramakrishana, B. Mishra, S. Rao, K.K. Srinivasan, K.I. Priyadarsini, M.K. Unnikrishnan, Ficus racemosa stem bark extract: a potent antioxidant and a probable natural radioprotector, Evidence-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 6 (2009) 317–324.
86. N. Soni, R.C. Dhiman, Larvicidal and antibacterial activity of aqueous leaf extract of Peepal (Ficus religiosa) synthesized nanoparticles, Parasite Epidemiol. Control. 11 (2020) e00166.
88. A. Kumar, A. Mishra, A.K. Mishra, H. Singh, Quantification of the secondary metabolites by HPTLC, analgesic and antipyretic activity evaluation of Ficus racemosa L. leaves, Orient. Pharm. Exp. Med. 19 (2019) 59–69.
89. R. Bhaskara Rao, T. Murugesan, M. Pal, B.P. Saha, S.C. Mandal, Antitussive potential of methanol extract of stem bark of Ficus racemosa Linn., Phyther. Res. An Int. J. Devoted to Pharmacol. Toxicol. Eval. Nat. Prod. Deriv. 17 (2003) 1117–1118.
90. V. Mishra, N.U. Khan, K.C. Singhal, Potential antifilarial activity of fruit extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn. against Setaria cervi in vitro, (2005).
91. N. Khan, S. Sultana, Modulatory effect of Ficus racemosa: diminution of potassium bromate‐induced renal oxidative injury and cell proliferation response, Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 97 (2005) 282–288.
92. N.A. Tayyib, Wound Healing and Ficus carica (Fig), in: Fig (Ficus Carica) Prod. Process. Prop., Springer, 2023: pp. 801–809.
93. N. Khan, S. Sultana, Chemomodulatory effect of Ficus racemosa extract against chemically induced renal carcinogenesis and oxidative damage response in Wistar rats, Life Sci. 77 (2005) 1194–1210.
94. A. Kar, D. Mahar, S. Biswas, D. Chakraborty, T. Efferth, S. Panda, Phytochemical profiling of polyphenols and thyroid stimulatory activity of Ficus religiosa leaf extract in 6-propyl-thiouracil-induced hypothyroid rats, J. Ethnopharmacol. (2023) 116479.
95. D. Sophia, S. Manoharan, Hypolipidemic activities of Ficus racemosa Linn. bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats, African J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 4 (2007) 279–288.
96. P. Malairajan, G. Gopalakrishnan, S. Narasimhan, K.J.K. Veni, Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants, J. Ethnopharmacol. 106 (2006) 425–428.
97. A.M. Forestieri, M.T. Monforte, S. Ragusa, A. Trovato, L. Iauk, Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity in rodents of plant extracts used in African medicine, Phyther. Res. 10 (1996) 100–106.
98. R.W. Li, S.P. Myers, D.N. Leach, G.D. Lin, G. Leach, A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants, J. Ethnopharmacol. 85 (2003) 25–32.
99. E. Haque, F. Ahmed, P. Chaurasiya, N. Yadav, N. Dhiman, M.K. Maity, A REVIEW ON ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECT OF HERBAL DRUGS, J. Pharm. Negat. Results. (2023) 2716–2723.
100. A. V Krishnaraju, T.V.N. Rao, D. Sundararaju, M. Vanisree, H.-S. Tsay, G. V Subbaraju, Biological screening of medicinal plants collected from Eastern Ghats of India using Artemia salina (brine shrimp test), Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. 4 (2006) 115–125.
101. T.A. Deshmukh, B. V Yadav, S.L. Badole, S.L. Bodhankar, S.R. Dhaneshwar, Antihyperglycaemic activity of petroleum ether extract of Ficus racemosa fruits in alloxan induced diabetic mice, Pharmacologyonline. 2 (2007) 504–515.
102. C.P. Trivedi, S. Shinde, R.C. Sharma, Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Ficus racemosa (Gular)., Indian J. Med. Res. 57 (1969) 1070–1074.
V. Bommakanti, A. Puthenparambil Ajikumar, C.M. Sivi, G. Prakash, A.S. Mundanat, F. Ahmad, S. Haque, M.A. Prieto, S.S. Rana, An Overview of Herbal Nutraceuticals, Their Extraction, Formulation, Therapeutic Effects and Potential Toxicity, Separations. 10 (2023) 177.