Main Article Content

Marjan Sobhanieh
Alireza Ghadian


Microbubbles, microswimmers, drug delivery, imaging, gastrointestinal tract


The gastrointestinal (GI) tract presents challenges for drug delivery and imaging due to its harsh conditions. Microbubbles and microswimmers have emerged as promising strategies to overcome these challenges. Microbubbles are gas-filled bubbles that can be functionalized with drugs and imaging agents, while microswimmers are self-propelled objects that can navigate through the GI
tract. This review provides an overview of microbubble and microswimmer technology in GI tract drug delivery and imaging. It discusses their potential applications, advantages, and limitations compared to other strategies. The challenges associated with their use, such as size, shape, stability, and navigation, are highlighted. The need for optimization, development of smart systems, and
future research directions are emphasized.

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