ANTIMICROBIAL CONSUMPTION AT THE HOSPITAL LEVEL IN LATIN AMERICA. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES ACCORDING TO EACH COUNTRY.

Main Article Content

Gustavo Marin
Lucia Giangreco
Yago Hernández
Cristian Dorati
Perla Mordujovich-Buschiazzo
María Rosa Bay
Gladys María Adriana Gonzalez
Francisca Aldunate
Mónica López Peña
Shing Mi Ching Fung
Adriana Martínez Parra
María José Alfonso Arvez
Hilda Mantilla Ponte
Danini Marin
ROJAS-CORTES ROBIN
CASTRO JOSE LUIS

Keywords

antimicrobials, consumption, Latin America, Hospital, AWaRe, WHO

Abstract

One of the main problems for health service around the world is the antimicrobial resistance (AMR).


Objective: to describe the antimicrobial consumption (AMC) at hospital level in Latin American countries and compare the amount and type of antibiotics usage among them in order to guide local public health actions towards AMR prevention.


Design: A descriptive study of antimicrobial consumption at hospital level among six health institution in Latin America with an analytical comparative stage. Antimicrobials included corresponded to the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system subgroups: J01, A07A and P01AB.


Methods: WHO GLASS methodology was applied for surveillance of AMC, using the ATC classification based on Defined Daily Dose (DDD) and DDD/100 hospital discharges as standard unit of measurement. Antimicrobials consumed were also classified according to the WHO Access-Watch-Reserve (AWaRe) classification.


Results: The quantitative data, measured in DDD/100 hospital discharges, showed a wide range of consumption (182.48 - 2260.95). Qualitative analysis according to the AWaRe classification also showed a wide range in terms of consumption of Access (38.14% - 73.64%), Watch (24.93% - 60 .53%) and Reserve (0.31% - 3.55%) groups expressed as a percentage of the total consumption.


Conclusion:  Great heterogeneity and arbitrariness exist in the selection of antimicrobials for hospital use. Although this situation might be explained on local antimicrobial resistance, the history of prescription, local pharmaceutical promotion, and pharmacological education of health professional in each country, particular habits and distinctive culture may justify the differential consumption patterns observed in each institution in this study.

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