Adipophilin Immunoexpression And Its Pathophysiology In Human Tooth Germ And Ameloblastoma

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Pratibha Ramani


Ameloblastoma, tooth germ, adipophilin, odontogenic tumor, immunoexpression


Background: The process of tooth development is the result of a series of interactions between the ectoderm of the oral cavity and the neural crest ectomesenchyme. Ameloblastoma is a slow-growing, locally invasive odontogenic epithelial tumor that primarily develops from enamel tissue that has not undergone differentiation. The role of lipids in the histogenesis of tooth germ and pathogenesis of ameloblastoma is an area that has not been explored. Recently, interest has been drawn to the field of study of abnormal lipid metabolism in tumors. Adipophilin is a perilipin interacting protein that coats the exteriors of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Elevated lipogenesis has been linked to poor prognosis in various tumors, suggesting potential therapeutic targets.
Aim: immunohistochemical expression of adipophilin in human tooth germ and ameloblastoma. Materials and methods: Fifteen samples each of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma and human tissue tooth germ were taken. Immunohistochemical expression of adipophilin was done and scored. Comparative analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test along with Spearman's correlation.
Results: Adipophilin was positive in all the tooth germ samples and the staining intensity was predominantly moderate (73.3%), with consistent staining shown in the epithelial components in all stages. Adipophilin was positive in 12 out of 15 ameloblastomas with strong immunostaining (80%). Consistent staining was present in peripheral cells and few central cells.
Conclusion: The diffuse cytoplasmic positivity of adipophilin in ameloblastoma indicates the production and accumulation of lipid droplets, offering new evidence of metabolic alterations that may be involved in tumor progression. For a better understanding of the idea, molecular analysis of the signaling pathways linked to the mechanism of adipophilin in ameloblastoma is required.

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