Detection of the bacterial activity of saponins and some mineral elements in the local aqueous extract of licorice

Main Article Content

Zainab Hashim Mohammed
Nuha Ali Hadi al-Samarrai
Rabeah T . Mahmood

Keywords

color reagents, aqueous extract, saponins, elements , Serratia, Klesiella Pneumoniae

Abstract

The aim of the study was to detect and quantify saponins in the aqueous extract of licorice using HPLC technique. It was found that it contained the highest recorded concentration of Rhaoglucoglycyrrhizin in 335.37 µg/ml, while the lowest recorded concentration of Glycyrrhizin-20 methanoate µg /ml was 89.6. Also, the percentage of saponins in the aqueous and alcoholic extracts was 6.58% and 4.15%, respectively. The concentration of flavonoids and tannins in the aqueous extract of licorice were 18.99 and 6.28 ppm, respectively. The study also aimed to find the percentage of some major and minor metallic elements, including Fe, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, and they were (1.382%, 2.04%, 5.5%, 5.38%, 4.186%, 1. 877%, 1.2%, 3.2% ) respectively. The effect of the extract containing the saponins mentioned above was studied in two bacterial species (Serratia, Klesiella Pneumoniae) using brain diffusion agar and then the added concentrations (100, 50,25,12.5)mg / Ml of the extract. The transparent zone of the bacterial growth inhibitor
showed a concentration of 100 mg / ml inhibitory zone for Klesiella Pneumoniae and 27 mm for Serratia .

Abstract 219 | pdf Downloads 131

References

Ploeger B , Mensinga T, Sips A , et al The pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizic acid evaluated by phtsiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. Drug Metab Rev.2001 ; 33 : 125 – 147 .
2. Fujioka T . Kondou T .Fukuhara A . etal .Efficacy of glycyrrhizin suppository for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: apilot study . Hepatol Res 2003 ; 26 (1) : 10 –14.
3. Fukai, T., Satoh, K., Nomura, T. and Sakagami, H.(2003). Preliminary evaluation of antinephritis and radical scavenging activities of glabridin from
glycyrrhiza glabra. Fitoterapia. 74(7–8):624–629.
4. Kamej . J , Nakamura R , Ichiki H etal Tutitussive principles of glycyrrizae radix amain component of the kampo preparations bakumondo – to ( Mai - men –dongtang ). Eurj pharmacol 2003 ; 469 ( 1-3 ) : 159-163 .
5. Tamir , S. ; Eizenberg , M. ; Somjen , D. ; Stem , N. ; Shelach , R. ; Kaya , A. and Vaya , J. (2000). Estrogenic and anti proliferative properties of
glabridin from licorice in human breast cancer cell. Cancer. Res. 60 : 5704-5709.
6. Nishino, H.; Kitagawa, K. and lwashima, A. (1984). Antitumor- promoting activity of glycyrrhetic acid in mouse skin tumor formation induced by 7, 12- dim-. Ethy. benza [a] anthracene plus teleocidin carcinogen. Esis, 11: 1529- 1230.
7. Isbrucker, R. A. and Burdock, G. A.(2006).Risk and safety assessment on the consumption of licorice root Glycyrrhiza sp., its extract and powder as a food ingredient, with emphasis on the pharmacology and toxicology of glycyrrhizin. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46:167–192
8. Edward, G. R., Bene, D. R., Lindsay, R. S. and Seckl, J. R.(1996).11 betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: key enzymes in determining tissue– specific glucocorticoid effects. Steroids. 61:263–269.
9. Mori,K.; Sakai, H.; Suzuki, S. Augai, K . ;Akustsu, Y. ;Ishi kawa, M.; Seino, Y. Ishada, N. and Uchaida, T.(1989).Effect ofglycyrrhizin on Hemophilia Patient with HIV ifection.J.Exp.Med.128:25-36.
10. Orlando,J.M. and Eva,T.(2003).Human Chromosome.4th ed. New York. USA.87-130.
11. Daher-Hjaij, N.Y., B.S. Khaled, M. El-Elan, H. Kuhayl, A. El-Menoufi and M. Hasan. 2018. Effect of the Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) to Control the Bee Varoa (Varroa destructor Oud.). Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 36(1): 27-31.
12. Kokate, C.K.; Purohit, A.P. and Gokhale, S.B. Pharmacognosy. Nirali Prakashan 2009; 6:16-17.
13. Gibbs, R.D. Chemotaxonomy of Flowering Plants. Montreal and London, McGill Queen’s University Press,. 1974.
14. Mahmoud, M. J. Chemistry of medicinal plants. Printed in Anwar Dijla, Bagdad, raq 2008:13-16.
15. Rashant ,T.; Bimlesh, K., Mandeep, K.; Gurpreet, K. and Harleen, K. Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review.Int. Pharm. Sci. 2011;1(1): 98-
106.
16. Kokate, C.K.;Purohit, A.P. and Gokhale, S.B. “Pharmacognosy”17th ED , Nirali Prakashan 2009:p. 99, 231, 185.
17. Harborne, J.B. Phytochemical methods. 2nd ED, New York, USA.Chapman and hall, (1985).
18. Sofowara, A. Medicinal plants and Traditional medicine in Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria ,Spectrum Books Ltd.1993. p. 289.
19. Ezeabara,chinelo A ; Okeke, C.U; Aziagba ,Bibian .O. et al. Determination of Saponin Content of Various parts of Six Citrus Species. International R
esearch Journal of pure and Applied Chemistry. 4(1):137-143.2014.
20. AL-Samarra ,Nuha Ali Hadi . Estimate of the flavonoids in the Leavesof BayLaurel Studying their Bio-activity . SSN: 1813 –1662 (Print)E-ISSN: 2415
–1726 (On Line). Tikrit Journal of Pure Sciences .22 (7) 2017.
21. Jabbar ,Maryam Hadi . Al-Ghanimi Ali Abdul Kadhim . Kadhim Najeh Hashem . Extraction and partial Purification of Proanthocyanidins from Grape
(Vitis vinifera ) and Date (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds and determination some of their Biological activities. Master of Science in Biology. Kerbala University 2006.
22. Wu Xuejin , Jia Lingyan ,Wu Jiafan et al. Simultaneous Determination and Quantification of Triterpene Saponins from Camellia sinensis Seeds
Using UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS. Molecules 2019, 24, 3794; doi:10.3390/molecules24203794.
23. Bahjat, H. H., Ismail, R. A., Sulaiman, G. M., and Jabir, M. S. (2021). Magnetic field-assisted laser ablation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in water
for anti-bacterial applications. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 1-8.
24. Khashan, K. S., Abdulameer, F. A., Jabir, M. S., Hadi, A. A., and Sulaiman, G. M. (2020). Anticancer activity and toxicity of carbon nanoparticles
produced by pulsed laser ablation of graphite in water. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 11(3), 035010.
25. Khashan, K. S., Badr, B. A., Sulaiman, G. M., Jabir, M. S., and Hussain, S. A. (2021, March).Antibacterial activity of Zinc Oxide nanostructured materials synthesis by laser ablation method. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1795, No. 1, p. 012040),
26. Jihad, M. A., Noori, F., Jabir, M. S., Albukhaty, S., AlMalki, F. A., and Alyamani, A. A. (2021). Polyethylene Glycol Functionalized Graphene Oxide
Nanoparticles Loaded with Nigella sativa Extract: A Smart Antibacterial Therapeutic Drug Delivery System. Molecules, 26(11), 3067.
27. Mohammed, M. K., Mohammad, M. R., Jabir, M. S., and Ahmed, D. S. (2020, March). Functionalization, characterization, and antibacterial activity of single wall and multi wall carbon nanotubes. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 757, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing.
28. Ali, I. H., Jabir, M. S., Al-Shmgani, H. S., Sulaiman, G. M., and Sadoon, A. H. (2018, May). Pathological And immunological study on infection with
escherichia coli in ale balb/c mice. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1003, No. 1, p. 012009). IOP Publishing.
29. Younus, A., Al-Ahmer, S., and Jabir, M. (2019). Evaluation of some immunological markers in children with bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Research Journal of Biotechnology, 14, 131-133.
30. Jabir, Majid S., Taha M. Rashid, Uday M. Nayef, Salim Albukhaty, Faizah A. AlMalki, Jawaher Albaqami, Amal A. AlYamani, Zainab J. Taqi, and
Ghassan M. Sulaiman. "Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus α-Hemolysin Production Using Nanocurcumin Capped Au@ ZnO Nanocomposite."
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications 2022 (2022).
31. Ifesan, B. O. T.; O. S. Ijarotimi, and O.F. Osundahuns. (2006). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Ocimum sp. J. Food Technol., 4(4):318.
32. Sahi ,Nibras Mohamed ; Khudair, Hadi Mezal . Evaluation of culture compounds isolated from leaves and roots of licorice plant in some aspects
of biological exclusion of Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Journal of Babylon, University for Pure and Applied Sciences.1(23)2015.
33. Hamza Doaa abdul Kareem . Effect of ethanol extract of root Glycyrrhiza glabra plant in liver enzymes levels and some histological and hormonical and Genetic standards in males white rats Induced Mitomycin-C. Master in Biology – Zoology. College of Education Pure Science ofKarbala University.
2015.
34. Ayoub Afaf Abdel Rahman. Study of the Active Ingredient of Licorice Plant and Applications . Journal of engineering and technology . DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.30684/etj.36.3C.8 .3(36)2018.
35. Kumar Avnish, Asthana Monika, Singh Preeti ,et al . Antioxidant and activity of root extracts of Licorice antibacterial ) Glycyrrhiza glabra (. International Journal of Minor Fruits, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Vol. 6 (1) : 01- 12, June 2020.
36. Al-Ajaimi, Thamer Abdullah Zazan. The effect of gibberellin GA3 and some nutrients on the production of glycyrrhizin and some Other
components in the licorice plant Glycyrrhiza glabra. Ph.D. thesis, College of Agriculture, University ofIraq-28-Baghdad.2005.
37. Newall, C.A.; Anderson, L.A. and Phillipson, J.D. (Editors)(1996). Herbal Medicines The Pharmaceutical Press, London, pp:183- 186.
38. Mahmoud Istibraq Ezz El-Din, Hamid Atyaf Saeed, and Al-Ibrahimi Thamer Abdel- Shaheed Mohsen. The effect of some petroleum ether extracts of
rosemary and licorice plants on the growth of Some types of plant pathogenic fungi. Journal of Mustansiriya Science.4(23)2012.
39. Roth,K; Licorice SpiralsChemie in unserer zet.38,202-207.2004.
40. Wang, Z.Y., Athar, M. and Bichers, D. R.(2000). Licorice in foods and herbal drugs: chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and uses. In: Mazza, G.
and Oomah, B. D.(editors). Herbs, botanicals and teas. Technomic Publishing Co Inc., Lancaster, PP:321–353.
41. Chin, Y. W., Jung , H. A. and Liu, Y.(2007). Antioxidant constituents of the roots and stolons of licorice (G.glabra). J. Agric. Food Chem.55(12):4691-4697.
42. Isbrucker, R. A. and Burdock, G. A.(2006).Risk and safety assessment on the consumption of licorice root Glycyrrhiza sp., its extract and powder as a food ingredient, with emphasis on the pharmacology and toxicology of glycyrrhizin Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46:167–192.
43. Andersen Øyvind, M., Markham, Kenneth R. (2006). Flavonoid chemistry biochemistry, and applications. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group