Frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pneumonia Patients and Prevalence of Virulence Genes

Main Article Content

Suaad abid fazaa al-miyah


isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, INH, rpoB


Tuberculosis is among the top 10 leading causes of death worldwide (TB). Tuberculosis is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Acute pulmonary TB manifests as acute tuberculous pneumonia (TP). The development of drug-resistant TB, however, continues to pose a problem for TB treatment and efficient disease management. Different mutations in M. tuberculosis can lead to isolates that are rifampicin-resistant. The genes katG, inhA, and inhA's promoter are all involved in cell wall production, and most INH-R strains have mutations in these genes. The purpose of this research was to determine how often M. tuberculosis infection in patients suffering from pneumonia and also find the prevalence of Rifampicin and Isoniazid resistance isolates, and also to correlate the infection with the lipid profile of patients. This study included 200 subjects who are suffering from severe pneumonia. DNA have been extracted from all samples and then M. tuberculosis detection have been done by qRT-PCR. Lipid profile have also been estimated for all the included samples. Then detection of the antibiotic resistance have also done by qRT-PCR. The distribution of samples showed a significant difference among the different infection periods (chi-square= 44.19, PValue= <0.001). The results showed that (7%) of the positive samples are resistance to Rifampicin. while resistance to Isoniazid are shown in 6.5% of the samples. The results of lipid profile showed a significant higher level in positive samples than negative samples regarding the serum level of total cholesterol (196.90 VS. 172.86, respectively), triglyceride (195.61 VS 152.33, respectively), and low density lipid (121.03 VS. 98.14, respectively).

Abstract 298 | pdf Downloads 98


1. Adékambi, Toïdi, Michel Drancourt, and Didier Raoult. 2009. “The RpoB Gene as a Tool for Clinical Microbiologists.” Trends in Microbiology 17 (1): 37–45.
2. Arega, Balew, Fiqrte Menbere, and Yitagesu Getachew. 2019. “Prevalence of Rifampicin Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis among Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients in Selected Governmental Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.” BMC Infectious Diseases 19 (1).
3. Callum, Jack, Phuong T.B. Nguyen, Elena Martinez, Van Anh T. Nguyen, Frances Garden, Nhung V. Nguyen, Thu Anh Nguyen, et al. 2022. “Prevalence and Genetic Basis of First-Line Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Ca Mau, Vietnam.” ERJ Open Research 8 (4).
4. Chen, Hao, Nobuyuki Horita, Hiromi Matsumoto, Ho Namkoong, Yu Hara, Nobuaki Kobayashi, and Takeshi Kaneko. 2021. “ABO Blood Group
as a Risk Factor for Tuberculosis: A Network Meta-Analysis.”
5. Heidary, Mohsen, Maryam Shirani, Melika Moradi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Ramin Pouriran, Tayebe Rezaeian, and Saeed Khoshnood. 2022. “Tuberculosis Challenges: Resistance, CoInfection, Diagnosis, and Treatment.” European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 12 (1): 1–17.
6. Hsu, Li Yu, Li Yin Lai, Pei Fang Hsieh, Tzu Lung Lin, Wan Hsuan Lin, Hsing Yuan Tasi, Wei Ting Lee, Ruwen Jou, and Jin Town Wang. 2020. “Two Novel KatG Mutations Conferring Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.” Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (July): 1644.
7. Huong, Nguyen T., Nguyen T.N. Lan, Frank G.J. Cobelens, Bui D. Duong, Nguyen V. Co, Maarten C. Bosman, Sang Jae Kim, Dick VanSoolingen,
and Martien W. Borgdorff. 2006. “Antituberculosis Drug Resistance in the South of Vietnam: Prevalence and Trends.” The Journal of Infectious Diseases 194 (9): 1226–32.
8. Jo, Yong Suk, Kyungdo Han, Dahye Kim, Jung Eun Yoo, Yuji Kim, Bumhee Yang, Hayoung Choi, Jang Won Sohn, Dong Wook Shin, and Hyun Lee. 2021. “Relationship between Total Cholesterol Level and Tuberculosis Risk in a Nationwide Longitudinal Cohort.” ScientificReports 2021 11:1 11 (1): 1–9.
9. Klapdor, Benjamin, Santiago Ewig, Mathias W. Pletz, Gernot Rohde, Hartwig Schütte, Tom Schaberg, and Tobias Weltee. 2012. “Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Younger Patients Is an Entity on Its Own.” European Respiratory Journal 39 (5): 1156–61.
10. Lempens, Pauline, Conor J. Meehan, Koen Vandelannoote, Kristina Fissette, Pim De Rijk, Armand Van Deun, Leen Rigouts, and Bouke C.
De Jong. 2018. “Isoniazid Resistance Levels of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Can Largely Be Predicted by High-Confidence ResistanceConferring Mutations.” Scientific Reports 2018 8:1 8 (1): 1–9.
11. Manjunatha, Ujjini H., Srinivasa P.S. Rao, Ravinder Reddy Kondreddi, Christian G. Noble, Luis R. Camacho, Bee H. Tan, Seow H. Ng, et al. 2015. “Direct Inhibitors of InhA Active against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.” Science Translational Medicine 7 (269): 269ra3.
12. Mase, Sundari R., and Terence Chorba. 2019. “Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis.” Clinics in Chest Medicine 40 (4): 775.
13. Mc Carlie, Samantha, Charlotte E. Boucher, and Robert R. Bragg. 2020. “Molecular Basis of Bacterial Disinfectant Resistance.” Drug Resistance Updates 48 (January): 100672.
14. Micheni, Lisa Nkatha, Kennedy Kassaza, Hellen Kinyi, Ibrahim Ntulume, and Joel Bazira. 2021. “Rifampicin and Isoniazid Drug Resistance among Patients Diagnosed with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Southwestern Uganda.” PLoS ONE 16 (10).
15. Raviglione, Mario, and Giorgia Sulis. 2016. “Tuberculosis 2015: Burden, Challenges and Strategy for Control and Elimination.” Infectious Disease Reports 8 (2): 33–37.
16. Ravimohan, S, H Kornfeld, … D Weissman -European Respiratory, and Undefined 2018. 2018. “Tuberculosis and Lung Damage: From Epidemiology to Pathophysiology.” Eur Respiratory Soc 27.
17. Rojas Echenique, José I., Sergey Kryazhimskiy, Alex N. Nguyen Ba, and Michael M. Desai. 2019. “Modular Epistasis and the Compensatory Evolution of Gene Deletion Mutants.” PLoS Genetics 15 (2).
18. Singh, R., S. P. Dwivedi, U. S. Gaharwar, R. Meena, P. Rajamani, and T. Prasad. 2020. “Recent Updates on Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.” Journal of Applied Microbiology 128 (6): 1547–67.
19. Stoop EJ, Mishra AK, Driessen NN, van
Stempvoort G, Bouchier P, Verboom T, et al.
Mannan core branching of lipo(arabino)mannan
is required for mycobacterial virulence in the
context of innate immunity. Cell Microbiol
20. Wei, Meili, Yongjie Zhao, Zhuoyu Qian, Biao Yang, Jun Xi, Jun Wei, and Bikui Tang. 2020. “Pneumonia Caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.” Microbes and Infection 22 (6): 278.
21. Wirth T, Hildebrand F, Allix-Béguec C, Wölbeling F, Kubica T, Kremer K, et al. Origin, spread and demography of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4(9)e1000160.
22. Zeng, Mei Chun, Qing Jun Jia, and Lei Ming Tang. 2021. “RpoB Gene Mutations in RifampinResistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolates from Rural Areas of Zhejiang, China.” The Journal of International Medical Research 49 (3).
23. Zetola, Nicola M., Chawangwa Modongo, Patrick K. Moonan, Ronald Ncube, Keikantse Matlhagela, Enoch Sepako, Ronald G. Collman, and Gregory P. Bisson. 2014. “Editor’s Choice: Clinical Outcomes Among Persons With Pulmonary Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Isolates With Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Results of DrugSusceptibility Tests.” The Journal of Infectious Diseases 209 (11): 1754.