Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pregnant women with urinary tract infections

Main Article Content

Ehsan F. Hussein
Haider Qassim Raheem

Keywords

antibiotics; pregnant women; Staphylococcus aureus; urinary tract infection.

Abstract

Introduction: Pregnancy-related urinary tract infections (UTIs) are prevalent in pregnant women, and these infections vary from lower to upper UTIs. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, cocci grape-shaped, naturally occurring bacterium that can cause infections, which are increasingly seen among pregnant ladies. Adverse effects of UTI treatment in both pregnant mother and the embryo represent the biggest challenge.
Methods: We analyzed 189 urine samples collected from pregnant women who had UTIs. These samples were used to isolate and identify S. aureus. The disc diffusion method was used to test the action of antibiotics against these bacteria.
Results: The number and percent of S. aureus isolates were equal to 27 and 14.286%, respectively. The susceptibility pattern of antibiotics against these bacteria showed 100% activity for nitrofurantoin, amikacin, and imipenem, 96.296% for chloramphenicol and vancomycin, and no activity (0%) for erythromycin and ceftazidime.

Abstract 450 | pdf Downloads 221

References

1. Alemu A, Moges F, Shiferaw Y, Tafesse K, Kassu A, Anagaw B, et al. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of UTI in pregnant women at University of Gondar teaching hospital. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2012;5:197.https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-197
2. Emiru T, Beyene G, Tsegaye W, Melaku S. Associated risk factors of UTI among pregnant women at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir
Dar, North West Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6(2):292. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-6-292
3. Tazebew D, Getenet B, Selabat M, Wondewosen T. Urinary bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern among pregnant women in
North West Ethiopia. Ethiop J of Health Sci. 2012;22(2):121–8.
4. Hussein EF, Ameen JA, Yassen SH. Study of the antibiotics activity against Escherichia coliisolated from urine samples of pregnant women
with urinary tract infection. Int J Pharm Res.2021;13(1):1368–72.
5. Mittal P, Wing DA. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Clin Perinatol. 2005;32(3):749–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2005.05.006
6. Alfred AO, Chiedozie I, Martin DU. Pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at a private health facility in Benin, South Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2013;12(3):160–4. https://doi.org/10.4103/1596-3519.117625
7. Dash M, Sahu S, Mohanty I, Narasimham MV, Turuk J, Sahu R. Prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance of asymptomatic
bacteriuria among antenatal women. Basic ClinReprod Sci. 2013;2(2):92–6.
8. Epoke CO, Anyanwu GO, Opara AA. The prevalence of significant bacteriuria in diabetic patients. Diab Int. 2000;10:16–7.
9. Haider G, Zehra N, Munir A, Haider A. Risk factors of UTI in pregnancy. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60(3):213–6.
10. Ezechi OC, Gab-Okafor CV, Oladele DA, Kalejaiye OO, Oke BO, Ekama SO, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic
bacteriuria among pregnant Nigerians infected with HIV. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013;26(4):402–6.
https://doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2012.733782
11. Horino T, Hori S. Metastatic infection during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. J InfectChemother. 2020;26(2):162–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.10.003
12. Top KA, Buet A, Whittier S, Ratner WJ, Saiman L. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus rectovaginal colonization in pregnant women and
risk for maternal and neonatal infections. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2012;1(1):7–15. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/pis001
13. Creech CB, Litzner B, Talbot TR, Schaffner W. Frequency of detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from rectovaginal swabs in pregnant women. Am J Infect Control.2010;38(1):72–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2009.06.015
14. Top KA, Huard RC, Fox Z, Wu F, Whittier S, Della-Latta P, et al. Trends in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus anovaginal colonization in pregnant women in 2005 versus 2009. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48(10):3675–80. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01129-10
15. Fortunov RM, Hulten KG, Hammerman WA, Mason EO Jr, Kaplan SL. Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections in term and
near-term previously healthy neonates. Pediatrics. 2006;118(3):874–81. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-0884
16. Seybold U, Halvosa JS, White N, Voris V, Ray SMBlumberg HM. Emergence of and risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of community origin in intensive care nurseries. Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):1039–46. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3161
17. Gessese YA, Damessa DL, Amare MM, Bahta YH, Shifera AD, Tasew FS, et al. Urinary pathogenic bacterial profile, antibiogram of
isolates and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Ambo town, Central Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Antimicrob Resist Infect
Control. 2017;6:132.https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-017-0289-6
18. Mousa BA, Hussein EF. Estimation the antibiotics activity against vaginal pathogenic microorganisms in pregnant ladies with early
rupture membrane and their fetal outcome. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2020;14(1):455–61.
19. Laibl VR, Sheffield JS, Roberts S, McIntire DD, Trevino S, Wendel GD Jr. Clinical presentation of community-acquired methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106(3):461–5.https://doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000175142.79347.12
20. Carey AJ, Duchon J, Della-Latta P, Saiman L. The epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal intensive care unit, 2000–2007. J Perinatol. 2010;30(2):135–9.https://doi.org/10.1038/jp.2009.119
21. Sheikh, Khan MS, Khatoon A, Arain GM.Incidence of urinary tract infection during pregnancy. East Mediterr Health J. 2000;6(2–
3):265–71.
22. Mucheye G, Mulugeta K, Yared M, Yenework S, Moges T, Martha A. E. coli isolated from patients suspected for urinary tract infections in Hawassa referral hospital, southern Ethiopia, an institution based cross sectional study. J Microbiol Res. 2013;1(1):009–15.
23. Shaifali I, Gupta U, Mahmood SE, Ahmed J. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens in female outpatients. North Am J Med
Sci. 2012;4(4):163–9.https://doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.94940
24. Tadesse E, Teshome M, Merid Y, Kibret B, Shimelis T. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa referral hospital, southern Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:155. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-155
25. Assefa A, Asrat D, Woldeamanuel Y, G/Hiwot Y, Abdella A, Melesse T. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of UTI in pregnant women at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital. Ethiop Med J. 2008;46(3):227–35.
26. Derese B, Kedir H, Teklemariam Z, Weldegebreal F, Balakrishnan S. Bacterial profile of UTI and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among
pregnant women attending at antenatal Clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2016;12(1):
251–60. https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S99831
27. Afriyie DK, Gyansa-Lutterodt M, Amponsah SK, Asare G, Wiredu V, Wormenor E, et al. Susceptibility pattern of uropathogens to
ciprofloxacin at the Ghana police hospital. Pan Afr Med. 2015;22:87.https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.22.87.6037
28. Onanuga A, Selekere TL. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of common urinary bacteria from asymptomatic students of Niger
Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. J Pharm and Bioallsci. 2016;8(1):29–33.https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.171684
29. Masinde A, Gumodoka B, Kilonzo A, Mshana SE. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bugando Medical Centre,
Mwanza, Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2009;11(3):154–9.https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v11i3.47704
30. Raheem HQ, Al-Ghazali LH, Al-Marzook FA. Antibacterial activity of copper oxide nanoparticles against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Mrsa). Int J Pharm Qual Assurance. 2019;10(03):138–41.
31. Kahlmeter G. An international survey of the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens from uncomplicated urinary tract infections; the ECO,
SENS Projects. J Antimicrob Chemother.2003;51(1):69–71. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkg028
32. Gupta K, Hooten TM, Stamm WE. Increasing antimicrobial resistance and the management of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infections. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(1):41–50.https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-135-1-200107030-00012
33. Hussein EF. Estimation of the antibiotic activity against Pseudomonas spp isolated from ear infection. J Commun Dis. 2021;53(3):227–31.