ASSESSING MOTOR SKILLS TO INFORM A FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER DIAGNOSIS FOCUSING ON PERSONS OLDER THAN 12 YEARS : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Background

Motor impairments are one of the difficulties present in people prenatally exposed to alcohol, and are included in the diagnostic criteria for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

Objectives

The aim of this review was to examine the extent and common types of motor impairment present in persons aged over 12 years prenatally exposed to alcohol as evidence for determining the skills that should be assessed and addressed in intervention.

Methods

A systematic review of current evidence using various electronic databases was conducted. Studies were appraised using a recognized clinical appraisal tool.

Results

Seven studies published between 1998 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. There is some evidence that difficulties with fine motor skills, visual motor integration, and balance skills persist in people who have been prenatally exposed to alcohol. Most studies did not focus on adolescent or adult participants in isolation, making it difficult to generalize results. Varied methodological designs made it difficult to compare studies as few used common standardized assessments.

Conclusion

A review of functional difficulties in each individual would be required to determine if a motor assessment is warranted. Further research is required using assessments recommended in diagnostic guidelines to determine the common motor difficulties seen in adolescents and adults.

Author(s): Bernadette Safe, Annette Joosten, Roslyn Giglia,